Scrobicularia plana Da Costa and Donax vittatus L. were reared in the laboratory through settlement. Fertilizable eggs were obtained by perfusing the ovary with 5% 0.1 M ammonium hydroxyde in sea water. S. plana eggs have a thick chorion, inside which the early larval stages develop; they hatch as straight-hinge larvae more than 60 h after fertilization. This brood protection is considered to be an adaptation to osmotic pressure changes and pollution in the environment. D. vittatus eggs have a very thin chorion and are unprotected. Further development is planktotrophic and very similar for the two species. Under laboratory conditions, the pediveliger stage is attained 3 weeks after fertilization and settlement occurs 1 week thereafter. S. plana spat stop growing until a suitable substratum is available. Meanwhile they undergo a “byssus drifting” important for postlarval dispersion. Post larvae resume growth as soon as a small quantity of fine sand is added to the rearing jar. The exhalant siphon is developed first, when the post larvae reach a length of 600 μm; the inhalant siphon is formed later, at a length of approximately 900 μm. Evolution from the larval hinge to the juvenile hinge stage occurs sooner in S. plana than in D. vittatus. Comparison of laboratory larval development with field development indicates that spawning occurs in June and August for S. plana in North Wales (UK).
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Communicated by J.M. Pérès, Marseille
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Frenkiel, L., Mouëza, M. Développement larvaire de deux Tellinacea, Scrobicularia plana (Semelidae) et Donax vittatus (Donacidae). Mar. Biol. 55, 187–195 (1979). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00396817