Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 61, Issue 2, pp 277–284 | Cite as

Bird communities and vegetation structure: I. Correlations and comparisons of simple and diversity indices

  • Martin Erdelen
Original Papers

Summary

In order to investigate relations between bird community and vegetation structure indices, with a focus on methodological problems, 22 study plots ranging from grassland to old forests were selected. Breeding passerine birds were censused by means of the mapping method. Vegetation structure was assessed by measuring cover values at 12 different heights (0.25 to 32 m). Simple indices (e.g. number of bird species, NRSPEC, and number of layers with vegetation, NSTRAT) as well as diversity values (bird and plant species diversity, BSD and PSD, resp.; foliage height diversity, FHD, and other indices of structural diversity) were calculated. Vegetation structure diversity, but not floristic diversity PSD, was found to be correlated with BSD. However, vegetation structure indices differed in several respects. The much-discussed BSD/FHD correlation held only if structurally different plots (forests and low vegetation) were included in the analysis, but not if the evaluation was restricted to forests alone. The index DT, suggested by Blondel and Cuvillier (1977) proved to be more useful, being more highly correlated to BSD, and more robust as to study site selection. It also offers the advantage of discerning between a vertical (DV) and a horizontal (DH) component. Due to methodological divergencies, it was found virtually impossible to make detailed comparisons, in terms of biological concepts, of the results of other authors and those of the present study, the problem of comparability apparently deserving more discussion than it has received hitherto. The designation “FHD”, esp., is used for numerical values arrived at by quite divergent field methods and computational procedures. It is concluded that simple indices (e.g. NRSPEC and NSTRAT), which are demonstrated to be good predictors of more complex ones (BSD and FHD, resp.), should be preferred as they permit better standardization and easier, more direct interpretation.

Keywords

Bird Species Vegetation Structure Study Plot Bird Community Height Diversity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aber JD (1979) Foliage height profiles and succession in Northern hardwood forests. Ecology 60:18–23Google Scholar
  2. Bezzel E (1974) Untersuchungen zur Siedlungsdichte von Sommervögeln in Talböden der Bayerischen Alpen und Versuch ihrer Interpretation. Anzeiger d ornitholog Gesellschaft Bayern 13:259–279Google Scholar
  3. Blondel J, Ferry C, Frochot B (1973) Avifaune et végétation: essai d'analyse de la diversité. Alauda 41:63–84Google Scholar
  4. Blondel J, Cuvillier R (1977) Une méthode simple et rapide pour décrire les habitats d'oiseaux: le stratiscope. Oikos 29:326–331Google Scholar
  5. Cyr A (1977) Beziehungen zwischen Strukturdiversität und Vogelpopulationen in der Umgebung des Verdichtungsraumes von Saarbrücken. Dissertation Univ. SaarbrückenGoogle Scholar
  6. Goodman D (1975) The theory of diversity-stability relationships in ecology. Quart Rev Biol 50:237–266Google Scholar
  7. Hildén O (1965) Habitat selection in birds. Ann Zool Fenn 2:53–75Google Scholar
  8. Hurlbert S (1971) The nonconcept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology 52:577–586Google Scholar
  9. James FC, Wamer NO (1982) Relationships between temperate forest bird communities and vegetation structure. Ecology 63:159–171Google Scholar
  10. Karr JR (1968) Habitat and avian diversity on stripmined land in East-central Illinois. Condor 70:348–357Google Scholar
  11. Karr JR, Roth RR (1971) Vegetation structure and avian diversity in several New World areas. Am Nat 105:423–435Google Scholar
  12. Lack D (1933) Habitat selection in birds. J Anim Ecol 2:239–262Google Scholar
  13. MacArthur RH (1964) Environmental factors affecting bird species diversity. Am Nat 98:387–397Google Scholar
  14. MacArthur RH, Horn HS (1969) Foliage profile by vertical measurements. Ecology 50:802–804Google Scholar
  15. MacArthur RH, MacArthur JW (1961) On bird species diversity. Ecology 42:594–598Google Scholar
  16. MacArthur RH, MacArthur JW, Preer J (1962) On bird species diversity: II. Prediction of bird census from habitat measurements. Am Nat 96:167–174Google Scholar
  17. MacArthur RH, Recher HF, Cody M (1966) On the relation between habitat selection and species diversity. Am Nat 100:319–332Google Scholar
  18. Moss D (1978) Diversity of woodland song-bird populations. J Anim Ecol 47:521–527Google Scholar
  19. Oelke H (1963) Die Vogelwelt des Peiner Moränen-und Lößgebietes. Dissertation Univ GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  20. Pearson DL (1975) The relation of foliage complexity to ecological diversity of three Amazonian bird communities. Condor 77:453–466Google Scholar
  21. Pianka ER, Huey RB (1971) Bird species diversity in the Kalahari and the Australian deserts. Koedoe 14:123–129Google Scholar
  22. Recher HF (1969) Bird species diversity and habitat diversity in Australia and North America. Am Nat 103:75–80Google Scholar
  23. Røv N (1975) Breeding bird community structure and species diversity along an ecological gradient in deciduous forest in western Norway. Ornis Scand. 6:1–14Google Scholar
  24. Roth RR (1976) Spatial heterogeneity and bird species diversity. Ecology 57:773–782Google Scholar
  25. Sachs L (1974) Angewandte Statistik. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Stouthamer R (1982) De relatie tussen vogelsoorten en vegetatie structuur. Doctoraal Verslag, Landbouw-Hoogeschool Wageningen, NetherlandGoogle Scholar
  27. Tomoff CS (1974) Avian species diversity in desert scrub. Ecology 55:396–403Google Scholar
  28. Willson MF (1974) Avian community organization and habitat structure. Ecology 55:1017–1029Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Erdelen
    • 1
  1. 1.Zoologisches Institut, 1. LehrstuhlUniversität KölnKöln 41Germany

Personalised recommendations