Marine Biology

, Volume 85, Issue 1, pp 1–11 | Cite as

Metabolic rates of epipelagic marine zooplankton as a function of body mass and temperature

  • T. Ikeda
Article

Abstract

The metabolic rates (oxygen uptake, ammonia excretion, phosphate excretion) of epipelagic marine zooplankton have been expressed as a function of body mass (dry, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus weights) and habitat temperature, using the multiple-regression method. Zooplankton data used for this analysis are from phylogenetically mixed groups (56 to 143 species, representing 7 to 8 phyla, body mass range: 6 orders of magnitude) from various latitudes (habitat temperature range:-1.4° to 30°C). The results revealed that 84 to 96% of variation in metabolic rates is due to body mass and habitat temperature. Among the various body-mass units, the best correlation was provided by carbon and nitrogen units for all three metabolic rates. Oxygen uptake, ammonia excretion and phosphate excretion are all similar in terms of body-mass effect, but differ in terms of temperature effect. With carbon or nitrogen body-mass units, calculated Q10 values are 1.82 to 1.89 for oxygen uptake, 1.91 to 1.93 for ammonia excretion and 1.55 for phosphate excretion. The effects of body mass and habitat temperature on the metabolic quotients (O:N, N:P, O:P) are insignificant. The present results for oxygen-uptake rate vs body mass do not differ significantly from those reported for general poikilotherms by Hemmingsen and for crustaceans by Ivleva at a comparable temperature (20°C). The importance of a body-mass measure for meaningful comparison is suggested by the evaluation of the habitat-temperature effect between mixed taxonomic groups and selected ones. Considering the dominant effects of body mass and temperature on zooplankton metabolic rates, the latitudinal gradient of community metabolic rate for net zooplankton in the ocean is estimated, emphasizing the non-parallelism between community metabolic rates and the standing stock of net zooplankton.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Banse, K.: Mass-scaled rates of respiration and intrinsic growth in very small invertebrates. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 9, 281–297 (1982)Google Scholar
  2. Beers, J. R.: Studies on the chemical composition of the major zoopkankton groups in the Sargasso Sea off Bermuda. Limnol. Oceanogr. 11, 520–528 (1966)Google Scholar
  3. Brett, J. R.: The respiratory metabolism and swimming performance of young sockeye salmon. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 21, 1183–1226 (1964)Google Scholar
  4. Clarke, A.: Life in cold water: the physiological ecology of polar marine ectotherms. Oceanogr. mar. Biol. A. Rev. 21, 341–453 (1983)Google Scholar
  5. Clutter, R. I. and G. H. Theilacker: Ecological efficiency of a pelagic mysid shrimp; estimates from growth, energy budget, and mortality studies. Fish. Bull. U.S. 69, 93–115 (1971)Google Scholar
  6. Conover, R. J.: Transformation of organic matter. In: Marine ecology. Vol. IV. Dynamics, pp 221–499. Ed. by O. Kinne. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons 1978Google Scholar
  7. Corner, E. D. S., C. B. Cowey and S. M. Marshall: On the nutrition and metabolism of zooplankton. V. Feeding efficiency of Calanus finmarchicus. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 47, 259–270 (1967)Google Scholar
  8. Corner, E. D. S. and A. G. Davies: Plankton as a factor in the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in the sea. Adv. mar. Biol. 9, 101–204 (1971)Google Scholar
  9. DeVries, A. L. and J. T. Eastman: Physiology and ecology of notothenioid fishes of the Ross Sea. Jl R. Soc. N.Z. 11, 329–340 (1981)Google Scholar
  10. Ekman, S.: Zoogeography of the sea, 417 pp. London: Sidgwick & Jackson 1967Google Scholar
  11. Foxton, P.: The distribution of the standing crop of zooplankton in the Southern Ocean. ‘Discovery’ Rep. 28, 191–236 (1956)Google Scholar
  12. Harrison, W. G.: Nutrient regeneration and primary production in the sea. In: Primary productivity in the sea, pp 433–460. Ed. by P. G. Falkowski. New York and London: Plenum Press 1980Google Scholar
  13. Heinrich, A. K.: On the tropical plankton communities in the western Pacific. J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 33, 45–52 (1969)Google Scholar
  14. Hemmingsen, A. M.: Energy metabolism as related to body size and respiratory surfaces, and its evolution. Rep. Steno meml Hosp. 9, 1–110 (1960)Google Scholar
  15. Holeton, G. F.: Metabolic cold adaptation of polar fish: fact or artifact? Physiol Zoöl. 47, 137–152 (1974)Google Scholar
  16. Ikeda, T.: Nutritional ecology of marine zooplankton. Mem. Fac. Fish. Hokkaido Univ. 22, 1–97 (1974)Google Scholar
  17. Ikeda, T.: Metabolic activity of larval stages of Antarctic krill, Antarctic. J. U. S. 16, 161–162 (1981)Google Scholar
  18. Ikeda, T., E. Hing Fay, S. A. Hutchinson and G. M. Boto: Ammonia and inorganic phosphate excretion by zooplankton from inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. I. Relationship between excretion rates and body size. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res 33, 55–70 (1982)Google Scholar
  19. Ikeda, T. and A. W. Mitchell: Oxygen uptake, ammonia excretion and phosphate excretion by krill and other Antarctic zooplankton in relation to their body size and chemical composition. Mar. Biol. 71, 283–298 (1982)Google Scholar
  20. Ikeda, T. and S. Motoda: Estimated zooplankton production and their ammonia excretion in the Kuroshio and adjacent seas. Fish. Bull. U.S. 76, 357–367 (1978a)Google Scholar
  21. Ikeda, T. and S. Motoda: Zooplankton production in the Bering Sea calculated from 1956–1970 Oshoro Maru data. Mar. Sci. Comms 4, 329–346 (1978b)Google Scholar
  22. Ikeda, T. and H. R. Skjoldal: The effect of laboratory conditions on the extrapolation of experimental measurements to the ecology of marine zooplankton. VI. Changes in physiological activities and biochemical components of Acetes sibogae australis and Acartia australis after capture. Mar. Biol. 58, 285–293 (1980)Google Scholar
  23. Ivleva, I. V.: The dependence of crustacean respiration rate on body mass and habitat temperature. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 65, 1–47 (1980)Google Scholar
  24. Johannes, R. E.: Phosphorus excretion and body size in marine animals: microzooplankton and nutrient regeneration. Science, N.Y. 146, 923–924 (1964)Google Scholar
  25. Kawamura, A.: Food and feeding ecology in the southern sei whale. Scient. Rep. Whales Res. Inst. Tokyo 26, 1–144 (1974)Google Scholar
  26. Klekowski, R. A.: Cartesian diver microrespirometry for aquatic animals. Polskie Archwm Hydrobiol. 18, 93–114 (1971)Google Scholar
  27. Lasker, R.: Feeding, growth, respiration and carbon utilization of a euphausiid crustacean. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 23, 1291–1317 (1966)Google Scholar
  28. Laws, E. A. and J. W. Archie: Appropriate use of regression analysis in marine biology. Mar. Biol. 65, 13–16 (1981)Google Scholar
  29. Marshall, S. M.: Respiration and feeding in copepods. Adv. mar. Biol. 11, 57–120 (1973)Google Scholar
  30. Marshall, S. M., A. G. Nicholls and A. P. Orr: On the biology of Calanus finmarchicus. VI. Oxygen consumption in relation to environmental conditions. J. mar biol. Ass. U.K. 20, 1–27 (1935)Google Scholar
  31. McLaren, I. A.: Effects of temperature on growth of zooplankton and the adaptive value of vertical migration. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 20, 685–727 (1963)Google Scholar
  32. Omori, M. and T. Ikeda: Methods in marine zooplankton ecology, 332 pp. New York: John Wiley & Sons 1984Google Scholar
  33. Prosser, C. L.: Oxygen: respiration and metabolism. In: Comparative animal physiology, pp 153–197. Ed. by C. L. Prosser and F. A. Brown, Jr. Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saunders Co. 1961Google Scholar
  34. Reid, J. L., E. Brinton, A. Fleminger, E. L. Venrick and J. A. McGowan: Ocean circulation and marine life. In: Advances in oceanography, pp 65–130. Ed. by H. Charnock and G. Deacon. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation 1978Google Scholar
  35. Schmidt-Nielsen, K.: Locomotion: energy cost of swimming, flying, and running. Science, N.Y. 177, 222–228 (1972)Google Scholar
  36. Strickland, J. D. H. and T. R. Parsons: A practical handbook of seawater analysis, 2nd ed. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 167, 1–310 (1972)Google Scholar
  37. Sverdrup, H. J., M. W. Johnson and R. H. Fleming: The oceans: their physics, chemistry and general biology, 1087 pp. New York: Prentice-Hall Inc. 1942Google Scholar
  38. Taniguchi, A.: Phytoplankton-zooplankton relationships in the western Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas. Mar. Biol. 21, 115–121 (1973)Google Scholar
  39. Torres, J. J. and J. J. Childress: Relationship of oxygen consumption to swimming speed in Euphausia pacifica. I. Effects of temperature and pressure. Mar. Biol. 74, 79–86 (1983)Google Scholar
  40. Torres, J. J., J. J. Childress and L. B. Quetin: A pressure vessel for the simultaneous determination of oxygen consumption and swimming speed in zooplankton. Deep-Sea Res. 29, 631–639 (1982)Google Scholar
  41. Van Der Spoel, S. and R. P. Heyman: A comparative atlas of zooplankton. Biological patterns in the oceans, 186 pp. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1983Google Scholar
  42. Vidal, J.: Physioecology of zooplankton. IV. Effects of phytoplankton concentration, temperature, and body size on the net production efficiency of Calanus pacificus. Mar. Biol. 56, 203–211 (1980)Google Scholar
  43. Vidal, J. and T. E. Whitledge: Rates of metabolism of planktonic crustaceans as related to body weight and temperature of habitat. J. Plankton Res. 4, 77–84 (1982)Google Scholar
  44. Vinogradov, A. P.: The elementary chemical composition of marine organisms. Mem. Sears Fdn mar. Res. 1953 (2), 1–647 (1953)Google Scholar
  45. Vinogradov, M. E.: Vertical distribution of the oceanic zooplankton, 339 pp. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations 1968Google Scholar
  46. Wimpenny, R. S.: The plankton of the sea, 426 pp. London: Faber & Faber Ltd. 1966Google Scholar
  47. Winberg, G. G.: Methods for the estimation of production of aquatic animals, 175 pp. New York: Academic Press 1971Google Scholar
  48. Zeuthen, E.: Body size and metabolic rate in the Animal Kingdom with special regard to the marine microfauma. C. r. Trav. Lab. Carlsberg (Sér. chim.) 26, 17–161 (1947)Google Scholar
  49. Zeuthen, E.: Oxygen uptake as related to body size in organisms. Q. Rev. Biol. 28, 1–12 (1953)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Ikeda
    • 1
  1. 1.Antarctic DivisionDepartment of Science and TechnologyKingstonAustralia

Personalised recommendations