Marine Biology

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 185–194 | Cite as

Gas-exchange studies with the staghorn coral Acropora acuminata and its zooxanthellae

  • C. J. Crossland
  • D. J. Barnes


Compensation point and light-saturation values were determined from oxygen-exchange experiments with branches and isolated zooxanthellae from the staghorn coral Acropora acuminata. Branches and dense suspensions of zooxanthellae showed similar lightresponse curves for oxygen exchange, with light saturation at about 23 Klux (300 W. m-2) and compensation point occurring between 4 and 6 Klux (60–80 W. m-2). Zooxanthellae appear to be mutually shaded in dense suspensions and coral tissues. The effects of metabolic inhibitors, including photosynthetic and respiratory inhibitiors, on oxygen exchange in coral branches and isolated zooxanthellae are presented. Bubbles formed on coral tissues and on several macroalgae under conditions of high illumination contained large amounts of oxygen, suggesting that a high oxygen tension may occur in coral tissues during the day. Photorespiration and dissolved organic carbon production by suspensions of zooxanthellae are discussed in relation to a high oxygen tension which probably occurs in coral tissues during daylight.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Andrews, T.J., G.H. Lorimer and N.E. Tolbert: Ribulose diphosphate oxygenase. I. Synthesis of phosphoglycolate by fraction 1 protein of leaves. Biochemistry, N.Y. 12, 11–18 (1973)Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, D.J. and C.J. Crossland: Urease activity in the staghorn coral, Acropora acuminata. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 55B, 371–376 (1976)Google Scholar
  3. — and D.L. Taylor: In situ studies of calcification and photosynthetic carbon fixation in the coral Montastrea annularis. Helgoländer wiss. Meeresunters. 24, 284–281 (1973)Google Scholar
  4. Bieleski, R.L. and N.A. Turner: Separation and estimation of amino acids in crude plant extracts by thin-layer electrophoresis and chromatography. Analyt. Biochem. 17, 278–293 (1966)Google Scholar
  5. Brown, D.L. and E.B. Tregunna: Inhibition of respiration during photosynthesis by some algae. Can. J. Bot. 45, 1135–1143 (1967)Google Scholar
  6. Bruin, W.J., E.B. Nelson and N.E. Tolbert: Glycolate pathway in green algae. Pl. Physiol., Lancaster 46, 386–391 (1970)Google Scholar
  7. Chalker, B.E. and D.L. Taylor: Light-enhanced calcification, and the role of oxidative phosphorylation in calcification of the coral Acropora cervicornis. Proc. R. Soc. (Ser. B) 190, 323–331 (1975)Google Scholar
  8. Cheng, K.H. and B. Colman: Measurements of photorespiration in some microscopic algae. Planta 115, 207–212 (1974)Google Scholar
  9. Chollet, R. and W.L. Ogren: Regulation of photorespiration in C3 and C4 species. Bot. Rev. 41, 137–179 (1975)Google Scholar
  10. Crossland, C.J. and D.J. Barnes: The role of metabolic nitrogen in coral calcification. Mar. Biol. 28, 325–332 (1974)Google Scholar
  11. Fogg, G.E.: The extracellular products of algae. Oceanogr. mar. Biol. A. Rev. 4, 195–212 (1966)Google Scholar
  12. Franzisket, L.: The ratio of reef building corals during a 24-hour period. Forma Function 1, 153–158 (1969)Google Scholar
  13. Goldsworthy, A.: Photorespiration. Bot. Rev. 36, 321–340 (1970)Google Scholar
  14. Goreau, T.F. and N.I. Goreau: The physiology of skeleton formation in corals. II. Calcium deposition by hermatypic corals under various conditions in the reef. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 117, 239–259 (1959)Google Scholar
  15. Halldal, P.: Photosynthetic capacities and photosynthetic action spectra of endozoic algae of the massive coral Favia. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 134, 411–424 (1968)Google Scholar
  16. Hought, R.A.: Photorespiration and productivity in submersed aquatic vascular plants. Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 912–927 (1974)Google Scholar
  17. Jackson, W.A. and R.J. Volk: Photorespiration. Rev. Pl. Physiol. 21, 385–432 (1970)Google Scholar
  18. Jeffrey, S.W.: Photosynthetic pigments of the phytoplankton of some coral reef waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 13, 350–355 (1968)Google Scholar
  19. Kanwisher, J.W. and S.A. Wainwright: Oxygen balance in some reef corals. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 133, 378–390 (1967)Google Scholar
  20. McLaughlin, J.J.A. and P.A. Zahl: Axenic zooxanthellae from various invertebrate hosts. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 77, 55–72 (1959)Google Scholar
  21. Muscatine, L.: Nutrition of corals. In: Biology and geology of coral reefs, Vol II: Biology I. pp 77–115. Ed. by O.A. Jones and R. Endean. New York & London: Academic Press 1973Google Scholar
  22. —: Endosymbiosis of cnidarians and algae. In: Coelenterate biology, reviews and new perspectives, pp 359–394. Ed. by L. Muscatine and H.M. Lenhoff. New York & London: Academic Press 1974Google Scholar
  23. Pearse, V.B.: Modification of sea anemone behaviour by symbiotic zooxanthellae: expansion and contraction. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 147, 641–651 (1974)Google Scholar
  24. Roffman, B.: Patterns of oxygen exchange in some Pacific corals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 27, 405–418 (1968)Google Scholar
  25. Smith, D., L. Muscatine and D. Lewis: Carbohydrate movements from autotrophs to heterotrophs in parasitic and mutualistic symbiosis. Biol. Rev. 44, 17–90 (1969)Google Scholar
  26. Taylor, D.L.: The cellular interactions of algalinvertebrate symbiosis. Adv. mar. Biol. 11, 1–56 (1973)Google Scholar
  27. Tolbert, N.E.: Leaf peroxisomes and photorespiration. In: Photosynthesis and photorespiration, pp 458–471. Ed. by M.D. Hatch, C.B. Osmond and R.O. Slatyer. New York, London, Sydney, Toronto: Wiley Interscience 1971Google Scholar
  28. Trench, R.K.: The physiology and biochemistry of zooxanthellae symbiotic with marine coelenterates. I. The assimilation of photosynthetic products of zooxanthellae by two marine coelenterates. Proc. R. Soc. (Ser. B) 177, 225–235 (1971a)Google Scholar
  29. —: The physiology and biochemistry of zooxanthellae symbiotic with marine coelenterates. II. Liberation of fixed 14C by zooxanthellae in vitro. Proc. R. Soc (Ser. B) 177, 237–250 (1971b)Google Scholar
  30. Vandermeulen, J.H., N.D. Davis and L. Muscatine: The effect of inhibitor of photosynthesis on zooxanthellae in corals and other marine invertebrates. Mar. Biol. 16, 185–191 (1972)Google Scholar
  31. Von Holt, C.: Uptake of glycine and release of nucleoside-polyphosphates by zooxanthellae. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 26, 1071–1079 (1968)Google Scholar
  32. Yonge, C.M.: Studies on the biology of Tortugas corals. III. The effects of mucus on oxygen consumption. Pap. Tortugas Lab. 31, 209–214 (1937)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. J. Crossland
    • 1
  • D. J. Barnes
    • 2
  1. 1.Australian Institute of Marine ScienceTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.James Cook University of North QueenslandTownsvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations