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Invertebrate blood cells: Morphological and functional aspects of the haemocytes in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis

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Abstract

The internal defence system (immune system) of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is reviewed. Humoral defence activities are agglutination, opsonisation and inhibition of bacterial growth. Cellular defence is exerted by antigen trapping endothelial cells, foreign protein engulfing pore cells, phagocytic reticulum cells and mobile haemocytes. The haemocytes contribute most to defence and are therefore treated in more detail. There is one type of haemocyte; morphological heterogeneity of the haemocyte population is due to varying states of differentiation of the cells. Haemocytopoiesis is through mitosis of haemocytes, both in the pool of tissue-dwelling cells and in circulation. Haemocytes resemble monocytes/macrophages, they are typical phagocytes equipped with recognition factors (lectins), lysosomal enzymes and a cytotoxicity mechanism using reative oxygen intermediates. A comparison is made of the internal defence systems of the three main metazoan taxa, insects, molluscs and vertebrates.

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Correspondence to W. P. W. van der Knaap.

Additional information

Originally presented at ECCP 93.

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van der Knaap, W.P.W., Adema, C.M. & Sminia, T. Invertebrate blood cells: Morphological and functional aspects of the haemocytes in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis . Comparative Haematology International 3, 20–26 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00394923

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Keywords

  • Cytotoxicity
  • Haemocyte
  • Invertebrate immunology
  • Lymnaea stagnalis
  • Mollusc
  • Phagocyte