Advertisement

Planta

, Volume 161, Issue 5, pp 398–403 | Cite as

Biosynthesis and metabolism of indole-3-ethanol and indole-3-acetic acid by Pinus sylvestris L. needles

  • Göran Sandberg
Article

Abstract

Combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been used to identify indole-3-ethanol (IEt) in a purified extract from needles of Pinus sylvestris L. Quantitative estimates obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, corrected for samples losses occurring during purification, indicate that Pinus needles contain 46±4 ng g-1 IEt. This compares with 24.5±6.5 ng g-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2.3±0.4 ng g-1 indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA) (Sandberg et al. 1984, Phytochemistry, 23, 99–102). Metabolism studies with needles incubated in a culture medium in darkness revealed that both [3-14C]-tryptophan and [2-14C]tryptamine mine are converted to [14C]IEt. It was also shown that [3-14C]IEt acted as a precursor of [14C]IAA. The observed metabolism appears to be enzymic in nature. The [2-14C]IAA was not catabolised to [14C]ICA in detectable quantities implying that, at best, only a minor portion of the endogenous ICA pool in the Pinus needles originates from IAA.

Key words

Auxin (biosynthesis, metabolism) Indole (biosynthesis, metabolism) Pinus 

Abbreviations

DEAE

diethylaminoethyl

GC-MS

gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

IAA

indole-3-acetic acid

ICA

indole-3-carboxylic acid

IEt

indole-3-ethanol

PVP

polyvinylpyrrolidone

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersson, B., Sandberg, G. (1982) Identification of endogenous N-(3-indoleacetyl)aspartic acid in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using high performance liquid chromatography for quantification. J. Chromatogr. 238, 151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bearder, J.R. (1980) Plant hormones and other growth substances — their background, structures and occurrence. In: Encyclopedia of plant physiology, N.S., vol. 9: Hormonal regulation of development I. Molecular aspects of plant hormones, pp. 9–112, MacMillan, J., ed. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohen, J.D., Bandurski, R.S. (1982) Chemistry and physiology of the bound auxins. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 33, 403–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hoffmann, F., Rausch, T., Hilgenberg, W. (1978) Preparation of radioactively labelled indole-3-acetic acid for auxin precursors. J. Labelled Compd. Radiopharm. 18, 1491–1495Google Scholar
  5. Letham, D.S., Goodwin, P.G., Higgins, T.J.V. (1978) Phytohormones and related compounds — a comprehensive treatise, vol. 2. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  6. Pengelly, W., Meins, F. (1977) A specific radioimmunoassay for nanogram quantities of the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid. Planta 136, 173–180Google Scholar
  7. Purves, W.K., Rayle, D.L., Johnson, K.D. (1967) Actions and interactions of growth factors on cucumber hypocotyl segments. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 141, 169–179Google Scholar
  8. Rajagopal, R. (1967) Occurrence of indole acetaldehyde and tryptophol in the extracts of etiolated shoots of Pisum and Helianthus seedlings. Physiol. Plant. 20, 655–660Google Scholar
  9. Rayle, D.L., Purves, W.K. (1967) Isolation and identification of indole-3-ethanol (tryptophol) from cucumber seedlings. Plant Physiol. 42, 520–524Google Scholar
  10. Rivier, L., Pilet, P.E. (1974) Indolyl-3-acetic acid in cap and apex of maize roots: identification and quantification by mass spectrometry. Planta 120, 107–112Google Scholar
  11. Sandberg, G. (1981) Indentification and quantification of 3-indoleacetic acid in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and some aspects of the auxin physiology of pine seedlings. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, UmeåGoogle Scholar
  12. Sandberg, G., Andersson, G., Dunberg, A. (1981) Identification of 3-indole-acetic acid in Pinus sylvestris L. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and quantitative analysis by ion-pair reversed phase liquid chromatography with spectrofluorimetric detection. J. Chromatogr. 205, 125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sandberg, G., Jensen, E., Crozier, A. (1984) Analysis of 3-indole carboxylic acid in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles. Phytochemistry 23, 99–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Schneider, E.A., Gibson, R.A., Wightman, F. (1972) Biosynthesis and metabolism of indole-3-yl-acetic acid. I. The native indoles of barley and tomato shoots. J. Exp. Bot. 23, 152–170Google Scholar
  15. Schneider, E.A., Wightman, F. (1978) Auxins. In: Phytohormones and related compounds — a comprehensive treatise. The biochemistry of phytohormones and related compounds, vol. 1, pp. 29–105, Letham, D.S., Goodwin, P.B., Higgins, T.J.V., eds. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  16. Sembdner, G., Gross, D., Liebsch, H.-W., Schneider, G. (1980) Biosynthesis and metabolism of plant hormones. In: Encyclopedia of plant physiology, N.S., vol. 9: Hormonal regulation of development I. Molecular aspects of plant hormones. pp. 281–444, MacMillan, J., ed. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Weiler, E.W., Jourdan, P.S., Conrad, W. (1981) Levels of indole-3-acetic acid in intact and decapitated coleoptiles as determined by a specific and highly sensitive solid-phase immunoassay. Planta 153, 561–571Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Göran Sandberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest Genetics and Plant PhysiologySwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUmeåSweden

Personalised recommendations