Small Business Economics

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 297–301

R&D and market structure: The impact of measurement and aggregation problems

  • Alfred Kleinknecht
  • Bart Verspagen
Article

Abstract

Estimates on the relationship between concentration and R&D effort are shown to be sensitive to problems of aggregation and of adequate measurement of R&D in small firms. While estimates from the official R&D survey of the Netherlands show a highly significant linear relationship between concentration and R&D, comparable estimates from our R&D data base prove it to be insignificant. However, at a finer level of disaggregation and when our sample is split into sectors with low and high technological opportunities, we discover evidence of a quadratic relationship in the latter and evidence of a weak linear relationship in the former.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Archibugi, Daniele, Sergio Cesaratto, and Giorgio Sirilli, 1987, ‘Innovative Activity, R&D and Patenting: The Evidence of the Survey on Innovation Diffusion in Italy’, in STI REVIEW (OECD), No. 2, September, 135–150.Google Scholar
  2. BOT, 1988, Beleidsoverzicht technologie (A report on technology policy by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, in Dutch), 's-Gravenhage 1988.Google Scholar
  3. Hughes Kirsty, 1986, Exports and Technology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Johnston J., 1984, Econometric Methods, 3rd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  5. Kleinknecht Alfred (with the assistance of Hans Bieshaar, Aat Keet, Jos den Ronden and Bart Verspagen), 1987a, Industriële innovatie in Nederland. Een enquête-onderzoek (Industrial Innovation in the Netherlands. A Postal Survey, in Dutch), Assen: Van Gorcum.Google Scholar
  6. Kleinknecht Alfred, 1987b, Innovation Patterns in Crisis and Prosperity. Schumpeter's Long Cycle Reconsidered (with a Foreword by Jan Tinbergen), London: Macmillan and New York: St. Martin's Press.Google Scholar
  7. Kleinknecht Alfred, 1989, ‘Firm Size and Innovation. Observations in Dutch Manufacturing Industry’, Small Business Economics 1(3), 1–8.Google Scholar
  8. Levin, Richard C., Wesley M. Cohen, and David C. Mowery, 1985, ‘R&D Appropriability, Opportunity and Market Structure: New Evidence on Some Schumpeterian Hypotheses’, in American Economic Review. Papers and Proceedings 75(2), 20–24.Google Scholar
  9. Lunn John and Stephen Martin, 1986, ‘Market Structure, Firm Structure and R&D’, Quarterly Journal of Economics and Business 26(1), 31–44.Google Scholar
  10. SchererF. M., 1967, ‘Market Structure and the Employment of Scientists and Engineers’, American Economic Review 57(3), 524–531.Google Scholar
  11. Scherer F. M., 1980, Industrial Market Structure and Economic Performance, 2nd ed., Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  12. Scherer F. M., 1984, Innovation and Growth, Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  13. Scott John T., 1984, ‘Firm Versus Industry Variability in R&D Intensity’, in Z.Griliches (ed.), R&D Patents and Productivity, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 233–245.Google Scholar
  14. Ten Cate A. and A. H. Sprangers, 1984, ‘Concentratie en deconcentratie in de industrie (1976 and 1981)’ (Concentration and de-concentration in industry, in Dutch), in Sociaal-economische maandstatistiek (Supplement), No. 7, Voorburg: CBS.Google Scholar
  15. Van Dijk, J. W. A. and Alfred Kleinknecht, 1984, ‘De positie van kleine en middelgrote ondernemingen in het Nederlandse innovatiebeleid’ (The position of small and medium-sized enterprises in Dutch innovation policy, in Dutch), in Economisch Statistische Berichten, Vol. 69, No. 3474, September, 894–899.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfred Kleinknecht
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bart Verspagen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.SEOFoundation for Economic Research of the University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT)MaastrichtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations