Planta

, Volume 157, Issue 2, pp 158–165

Induction of dormancy during seed development by endogenous abscisic acid: studies on abscisic acid deficient genotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

  • C. M. Karssen
  • D. L. C. Brinkhorst-van der Swan
  • A. E. Breekland
  • M. Koornneef
Article

Abstract

Mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., which are characterized by symptoms of withering and the absence of seed dormancy, showed much lower levels of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in developing seeds and fruits (siliquae) than the wild type. Reciprocal crosses of wild type and ABA-deficient mutants showed a dual origin of ABA in developing seeds. The genotype of the mother plant regulated a sharp rise in ABA content half-way seed development (maternal ABA). The genotype of the embryo and endosperm was responsible for a second ABA fraction (embryonic ABA), which reached much lower levels, but persisted for some time after the maximum in maternal ABA. The onset of dormancy correlated well with the presence of the embryonic ABA fraction and not with the maternal ABA. Dormancy developed in both the absence and presence of maternal ABA in the seeds. In this respect maternal ABA resembled exogenously applied ABA which did not induce dormancy in ABA-deficient seeds. However, both maternal and applied ABA stimulated the formation of a mucilage layer around the testa, which could be observed during imbibition of the mature seeds. In the mature state, ABA-deficient seeds germinated in the siliquae on the plant, but only when the atmosphere surrounding the plant was kept at high relative humidity. In younger stages germination in siliquae occurred after isolation from the plants and incubation on wet filter paper. Therefore, it seems that limited access to water is the primary trigger for the developmental arrest in these seeds.

Key words

Abscisic acid deficient mutant Arabidopsis Dormancy (seeds) Seed development 

Abbreviation

ABA

abscisic acid

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Choinski, J.S., Jr., Trelease, R.N. (1978) Control of enzyme activities in cotton cotyledons during maturation and germination. II. Glyoxysomal enzyme development in embryos. Plant Physiol. 62, 141–145Google Scholar
  2. Crouch, M.L., Sussex, I.M. (1981) Development and storageprotein synthesis in Brassica napus L. embryos in vivo and in vitro. Planta 153, 64–74Google Scholar
  3. Dewdney, S.J., McWha, J.A. (1979) Abscisic acid and the movement of photosynthetic assimilates towards developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 92, 183–186Google Scholar
  4. Dure, L., III, Greenway, S.C., Galau, G.A. (1981) Developmental biochemistry of cotton seed embryogenesis and germination: changing messenger ribonucleic acid populations as shown by in vitro and in vivo protein synthesis. Biochemistry 20, 4162–4168Google Scholar
  5. Eeuwens, C.J., Schwabe, W.W. (1975) Seed and pod wall development in Pisum sativum L. in relation to extracted and applied hormones. J. Exp. Bot. 26, 1–14Google Scholar
  6. Globerson, D., Kadman-Zahavi, A., Ginzburg, C. (1974) A genetic method for studying the role of the seed coats in the germination of lettuce. Ann. Bot., 38, 201–203Google Scholar
  7. Goldbach, H., Goldbach, E. (1977) Abscisic acid translocation and influence of water stress on grain abscisic acid content. J. Exp. Bot. 28 1342–1350Google Scholar
  8. Goldbach, H., Michael, G. (1976) Abscisic acid content of barley grains during ripening as affected by temperature and variety. Crop Sci. 16, 797–799Google Scholar
  9. Honing, J.A. (1930) Nucleus and plasma in the heridity of the need of light for germination in Nicotiana seeds. Genetica 12, 441–476Google Scholar
  10. Hsu, F.C. (1979) Abscisic acid accumulation in developin seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant Physiol. 63, 552–556Google Scholar
  11. Imber, D., Tal, M. (1970) Phenotypic reversion of flacca, a wilty mutant of tomato by abscisic acid. Science 169, 592–593Google Scholar
  12. Kasperbauer, M.J. (1968) Dark-germination of reciprocal hybrid seed from light-requiring and-indifferent Nicotiana tabaccum. Physiol. Plant. 21, 1308–1311Google Scholar
  13. King, R.W. (1976) Abscisic acid in developing wheat grains and its relationship to grain growth and maturation. Planta 132, 43–51Google Scholar
  14. King, R.W. (1979) Abscisic acid synthesis and metabolism in wheat ears. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 6, 99–108Google Scholar
  15. Knegt, E., Vermeer, E., Bruinsma, J. (1981) The combined determination of Indolyl-3-acetic and abscisic acids in plant materials. Anal. Biochem. 114, 362–366Google Scholar
  16. Koornneef, M., Jorna, M.L., Brinkhorst-van der Swan, D.L.C., Karssen, C.M. (1982) The isolation of abscisic acid (ABA) deficient mutants by selection of induced revertants in nongerminating gibberellin sensitive lines of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Theor. Appl. Genet. 61, 385–393Google Scholar
  17. McDaniel, S., Smith, J.D., Price, H.J. (1977) Response of viviparous mutants to abscisic acid in embryo culture. Maize Genet. Coop. Newslett 51, 85–86Google Scholar
  18. Milborrow, B.V., Robinson, D.R. (1973) Factors affecting the biosynthesis of abscisic acid. J. Exp. Bot. 24, 537–548Google Scholar
  19. Quarrie, S.A. (1982) Droopy: a witly mutant of potato deficient in abscisic acid. Plant Cell Environ. 5, 23–26Google Scholar
  20. Quebedeaux, B., Sweetser, P.B., Rowell, J.C. (1976) Abscisic acid levels in soybean reproductive structures during development. Plant Physiol. 58, 363–366Google Scholar
  21. Robichaud, C.S., Wong, J., Sussex, I.M. (1980) Control of in vitro growth of viviparous embryo mutants of maize by abscisic acid. Dev. Genet. 1, 325–330Google Scholar
  22. Smith, J.D., McDaniel, S., Lively, S. (1978) Regulation of embryo growth by abscisic acid in vitro. Maize Genet. Coop. Newslett 52, 107–108Google Scholar
  23. Taylor, I.B. (1979) The effect of the lateral suppressor gene on seed germination in the tomato. Euphytica 28, 93–97Google Scholar
  24. Tietz, A., Ludewig, M., Dingkuhn, M., Dörffling, K. (1981) Effect of abscisic acid on the transport of assimilates in barley. Planta 152, 557–561Google Scholar
  25. Van Onckelen, H., Caubergs, R., Horemans, S., De Greef, J.A. (1980) Metabolism of abscisic acid in developing seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and its correlation to germination and α-amylase activity. J. Exp. Bot. 31, 913–920Google Scholar
  26. Walbot, V. (1978) Control mechanisms for plant embryogeny. In: Dormancy and developmental arrest, pp. 113–166, Clutter, M.E., ed. academic Press New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Walton, D.C. (1980) Biochemistry and physiology of abscisic acid. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 31, 453–489Google Scholar
  28. Wareing, P.F. (1978) Abscisic acid as a natural, growth regulator. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 284 483–498Google Scholar
  29. Witzum, A., Gutterman, Y., Evenari, M. (1969) Integumentary mucilage as an oxygen barrier during germination of Blepharis persica (Burm.) Kuntze. Bot. Gaz. 130, 238–241Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. M. Karssen
    • 1
  • D. L. C. Brinkhorst-van der Swan
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. E. Breekland
    • 2
  • M. Koornneef
    • 2
  1. 1.Afdeling Plantenphysiologie van de LandbouwhogeschoolWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Afdeling Erfelijkheidsleer van de LandbouwhogeschoolWageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations