Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 64, Issue 3, pp 299–304 | Cite as

Toxicity of zinc, cadmium and copper to the shrimp Callianassa australiensis. I. Effects of individual metals

  • M. Ahsanullah
  • D. S. Negilski
  • M. C. Mobley
Article

Abstract

The acute toxicity of zinc, cadmium and copper to Callianassa australiensis (Dana) was evaluated in static tests. Each test lasted up to 14 d and LC50 values were calculated for 4, 7, 10 and 14 d intervals. The toxicity of each metal increased with exposure time; thus the 4 d LC50 values of 10.20, 6.33 and 1.03 mg l-1 were considerably higher than the 14 d LC50 values of 1.15, 0.49 and 0.19 mg l-1 for zinc, cadmium and copper respectively. Toxicity curves reveal that none of the values were asymptotic, indicating that median lethal threshold concentrations were not reached for any of the metals. This suggests that 14 d is an insufficient time in which to complete meaningful, acute lethality tests for marine shrimps. Longer tests are necessary if lethal threshold concentrations are to be used with application factors to derive “safe” concentrations for the protection of C. australiensis.

Keywords

Copper Zinc Toxicity Cadmium Exposure Time 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Ahsanullah, M.: Acute toxicity of zinc and cadmium to seven invertebrate species from Western Port, Victoria. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res. 27, 187–196 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahsanullah, M. and G. H. Arnott: Acute toxicity of copper, cadmium and zinc to larvae of the crab Paragrapsus quadridentatus (H. Milne Edwards), and implications for water quality criteria. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res. 29, 1–8 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. APHA: Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 13th ed. 874 pp. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Federation 1971Google Scholar
  4. Arnott, G. H. and M. Ahsanullah: Acute toxicity of copper, cadmium and zinc to three species of marine copepods. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res. 30, 63–71 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bahner, L. H. and D. R. Nimmo: Methods to assess effects of combinations of toxicants, salinity, and temperature on estuarine animals. In: Trace substances in environmental health — IX, pp 169–177. Ed. by D. D. Hemphill. Colubia: University of Missouri 1975Google Scholar
  6. Brown, V. M.: Concepts and outlook in testing the toxicity of substances to fish. In: Bioassay techniques and environmenta chemistry, pp 73–95. Ed. by G. E. Glass. Ann Arbor: Ann Arbor Science Publishers 1973Google Scholar
  7. Bryan, G. W.: The effects of heavy metals (other than mercury) on marine and estuarine organisms. Proc. R. Soc. London (Ser. B) 177, 389–410 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collier, R. S., J. E. Miller, M. A. Dawson and F. P. Thurberg: Physiological responses of the mud crab, Eurypanopeus depressus to cadmium. Bull. envir. Contam. Toxicol. 10, 378–382 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eisler, R.: Cadmium poisoning in Fundulus heteroclitus (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae) and other marine organisms. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 28, 1225–1234 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eisler, R. and R. J. Hennekey: Acute toxicities of Cd2+, Cr+6, Hg2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ to estuarine macrofauna. Archs envir. Contam. Toxicol. 6, 315–323 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. EPA: State Environmental Protection Policy No. W-28 (The waters of Westernport Bay and catchment), In: Government Gazette, pp 369–380. Melbourne, Australia: F. D. Atkinson, Government Printer 1979Google Scholar
  12. Finney, D. J.: Probit analysis, 333 pp. London: Cambridge University Press 1971Google Scholar
  13. Frank, P. M. and P. B. Robertson: The influence of salinity on toxicity of cadmium and chromium to the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Bull. envir. Contam. Toxicol. 21, 74–78 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hailstone, T. S. and W. Stephenson: The biology of Callianassa (Trypaea) australiensis Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Thallassinidae). Pap. Dep. Zool. Univ. Qd 1, 259–285 (1961)Google Scholar
  15. Johnson, M. W. and J. H. Gentile: Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper and mercury to larval American lobster Homarus americanus. Bull envir. Contam. Toxicol. 22, 258–264 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McLeese, D. W.: Toxicity of copper at two temperatures and three salinities to the American lobster. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 31, 1949–1952 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. NAS/NAE: National Academy of Sciences-National Academy of Engineering: Water quality criteria 1972, 594 pp. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office 1973Google Scholar
  18. Nimmo, D. R. and L. H. Bahner: Metals, pesticides and PCB's: toxicity to shrimp singly and in combination. In: Estuarine processes, Vol. I. pp 523–532. Ed. by M. Wiley. New York, San Francisco and London: Academic Press, Inc. 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nimmo, D. R., D. V. Lightner and L. H. Bahner: Effects of cadmium on the shrimp, Penaeus duorarum Palaemonetes pugio and Palaemonetes vulgaris. In: Physiological responses of marine biota to pollutants. pp 131–183. Ed. by F. J. Vernberg, A. Calabrese, F. P. Thurberg, and W. B. Vernberg, New York, San Francisco, London: Academic Press, Inc. 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nimmo, D. R., R. A. Rigby, L. H. Bahner and J. M. Sheppard: The acute and chronic effects of cadmium on the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. Bull. envir. Contam. Toxicol. 19, 80–85 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. O'Hara, J.: The influence of temperature and salinity on the toxicity of cadmium to the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Fish. Bull. U.S. 71, 149–153 (1973)Google Scholar
  22. Phillips, D. J. H.: The common mussel Mytilus edulis as an indicator of pollution by zinc, cadmium, lead and copper. I. Effects of environmental variables on uptake of metals. Mar. Biol. 38, 59–69 (1976a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Phillips, D. J. H.: The common mussel Mytilus edulis as an indicator of pollution by zinc, cadmium, lead and copper. II. Relationship of metals in the mussel to those discharged by industry. Mar. Biol. 38, 71–80 (1976b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Portmann, J. E.: Progress report on a program of insecticide analysis and toxicity — testing in relation to the marine environment. Helgoländer wiss. Meeresunters. 17, 247–256 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Portmann, J. E.: Results of acute toxicity tests with marine organisms, using a standard method. In: Marine pollution and sea life, pp 212–217. Ed. by M. Ruivo. London: Fishing News (Books) Ltd. 1972Google Scholar
  26. Pyefinch, K. A. and J. C. Mott: The sensitivity of barnacles and their larvae to copper and mercury. J. exp. Biol. 25, 276–298 (1948)Google Scholar
  27. Raymont, J. E. G. and J. Shields: Toxicity of copper and chromium in the marine environment In: Advances in water pollution research, Vol. 3. pp 275–290. Ed. by E. A. Pearson. New York: MacMillan Co. 1964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Robertson, A. I.: Ecology of juvenile King George whiting Sillaginodes punctatus (Cuvier & Valenciennes) (Pisces: Perciformes) in Western Port, Victoria. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res. 28, 35–43 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sprague, J. B.: Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish. I. Bioassay methods for acute toxicity. Wat. Res. 3, 793–821 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sprague, J. B.: The ABC's of pollutant bioassay using fish. In: Biological methods for the assessment of water quality, pp 6–30. Ed. by J. Cairns, Jr. and K. L. Dickson. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thorp, V. J. and P. S. Lake: Toxicity bioassays of cadmium on selected freshwater invertebrates and the interaction of cadmium and zinc on the freshwater shrimp, Paratya tasmaniensis Riek. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res. 25, 97–104 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Torres, J. J., D. L. Gluck and J. J. Childress: Activity and physiological significance of the pleopods in the respiration of Callianassa californiensis (Dana) (Crustacea: Thalassinidea). Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 152, 134–146 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wuhrmann, K.: Sur quelques principes de la toxicologie du poisson. Bull. Cent. belge Etud. Docum. Eaux 15, p. 49 (1952). [Transl. Ser. Fish. Res. Bd Can. No. 243]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Ahsanullah
    • 1
  • D. S. Negilski
    • 1
  • M. C. Mobley
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine Science LaboratoriesMinistry for ConservationQueenscliffAustralia

Personalised recommendations