Planta

, Volume 165, Issue 3, pp 322–332 | Cite as

The production of callus capable of plant regeneration from immature embryos of numerous Zea mays genotypes

  • D. R. Duncan
  • M. E. Williams
  • B. E. Zehr
  • J. M. Widholm
Article

Abstract

In the summer of 1983, immature embryos from 101 selfed inbred lines and germplasm stocks of Zea mays L. were examined for their ability to produce callus cultures capable of plant regeneration (regenerable cultures) using a medium with which some limited success had previously been obtained. Forty-nine of the genotypes (49%) produced callus which visually appeared similar to callus previously cultured and shown to be capable of plant regeneration. After five months, 38 of these genotypes were alive in culture and plants were subsequently regenerated from 35 (92%) of them. No correlation was observed between plant regeneration and callus growth rate, the vivipary mutation (genes vp1, 2, 5, 7, 8 and 9), or published vigor ratings based on K+ uptake by roots. When F1 hybrid embryos were cultured, 97% of the hybrids having at least one regenerable parent also produced callus capable of plant regeneration. No regenerable cultures were obtained from any hybrid lacking a parent capable of producing a regenerable callus culture.

In the summer of 1984, immature embryos from 218 additional inbred lines and germplasm stocks were plated and examined for their ability to produce regenerable callus cultures on media containing altered micronutrient concentrations, 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba), glucose, and elevated levels of vitamin-free casamino acids and thiamine. Of these genotypes 199 (91%) produced callus that was regenerable in appearance. In the 1984 study, plant regeneration was noted in many commercially important inbreds, including B73, Mo17, B84, A632, A634, Ms71, W117, H993H95 and Cm105. Thus tissue-culture techniques are now available to obtain callus cultures capable of plant regeneration from immature embryos of most maize genotypes.

Key words

Embryo (tissue culture) Tissue culture (plant regeneration) Zea (plant regeneration) 

Abbreviations trade names

2,4-D

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

dicamba

3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, D.E., Spencer, I. (1982) Registration of South African Photoperiod Insensitive Maize Composite I, II, and (Reg. No. GP 90 to GP 92). Crop. Sci. 22, 158Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong, C.L., Green, C.E. (1982) Initiation of friable, embryogenic maize callus: the role of L-proline. In: Agron. Abstr., 74th Ann. Meet., p. 89, American Society of AgronomyGoogle Scholar
  3. Cacco, G., Saccomani, M., Ferrari, G. (1983) Changes in the uptake and assimilation efficiency for sulfate and nitrate in maize hybrids selected during the period 1930 through 1975. Physiol. Plant. 58, 171–174Google Scholar
  4. Chourey, P.S., Zurawski, D.B. (1981) Callus formation from protoplasts of a maize cell culture. Theor. Appl. Genet. 59, 341–344Google Scholar
  5. Chu, C.C., Wang, C.C., Sun, C.S., Hsu, C., Yin, K.C., Chu, C.Y. (1975) Establishment of an efficient medium for anther culture of rice through comparative experiments on the nitrogen sources. Sci. Sin. 16, 659–688Google Scholar
  6. Conger, B.V., Hanning, G.E., Gray, D.J., McDaniel, J.K. (1983) Direct embryogenesis from mesophyll cells of orchardgrass. Science 221, 850–851Google Scholar
  7. Crafts, A.S. (1964) Herbicide behavior in the plant. In: The physiology and biochemistry of herbicides, pp. 75–110, Audus, L.J., ed. Academic Press, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Earle, E.D. (1983) Plant regeneration from cultures of inbred W132BN in N, C and S cytoplasm. Maize Genet. Coop. Newslett. 57, 53Google Scholar
  9. Fong, F., Smith, J.D., Koehler, D.E. (1983) Early events in maize seed development. 1-Methyl-3-phenyl-5-([trifluoromethyl]phenyl)-4-(IH)-pyridinone induction of vivipary. Plant Physiol. 73, 899–901Google Scholar
  10. Freeling, M., Woodman, J.C., Cheng, D.S.K. (1976) Developmental potentials of maize tissue cultures. Maydica 21, 97–112Google Scholar
  11. Frick, H., Bauman, L.F. (1978) Heterosis in maize as measured by K uptake properties of seedling roots. Crop Sci. 18, 99–103Google Scholar
  12. Gamborg, O.L., Miller, R.A., Ojima, K. (1968) Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Exp. Cell Res. 50, 151–158Google Scholar
  13. Green, C.E. (1977) Prospects for crop improvement in the field of cell culture. Hort. Sci. 12, 131–134Google Scholar
  14. Green, C.E. (1981) Tissue culture in grasses and cereals. In: Genetic engineering for crop improvement, pp. 107–122, Rachie, K.O., Lyman, J.M., eds. Rockefeller Foundation Working Paper, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  15. Green, C.E. (1982) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from the friable callus of Zea mays. In: Plant tissue culture 1982 (Proc. V. Int. Congr. Plant Tissue and Cell Culture), pp. 107–108, Fujiwara, A., ed. Japanese Association for Plant Tissue Culture, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  16. Green, C.E., Phillipps, R.L. (1975) Plant regeneration from tissue culture of maize. Crop Sci. 15, 417–421Google Scholar
  17. Harms, C.T., Lorz, H., Potrykus, I. (1976) Regeneration of plantlets from callus culture of Zea mays L. Z. Pflanzenzücht. 77, 347–351Google Scholar
  18. Henderson, C.B. (1980) Maize research and breeders manual, No. IX: Inbreds, breeding stocks maize investigations and academic research personnel. Illinois Foundation Seeds, Champaign, Ill., USAGoogle Scholar
  19. Hibberd, K.A. (1984) Induction, selection and characterization of mutants in maize cell cultures. In: Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants, pp. 571–576, Vasil, I.K., ed. Academic Press, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Hoagland, D.R., Arnon, D.I. (1950) The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. Circ. No. 347, California Agricultural Experiment StationGoogle Scholar
  21. Horn, M.E., Sherrard, J.H., Widholm, J.M. (1983) Photoautotrophic growth of soybean cells in suspension culture. Plant Physiol. 72, 426–429Google Scholar
  22. Jacobson, L. (1951) Maintenance of iron supply in nutrient solutions by a single addition of ferric potassium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate. Plant Physiol. 26, 411–413Google Scholar
  23. Kauffmann, K.D., Dudley, J.W. (1979) Selection Indices for Corn Grain Yield, Percent Protein, and Kernel Weight. Crop Sci. 19, 583–588Google Scholar
  24. Lu, C., Vasil, I.K., Ozias-Akins, P. (1982) Somatic embryogenesis in Zea mays L. Theor. Appl. Genet. 62, 109–112Google Scholar
  25. Lu, C., Vasil, V., Vasil, I.K. (1983) Improved efficiency of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in tissue cultures of maize (Zea mays L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 66, 285–289Google Scholar
  26. Murashige, T., Skoog, F. (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473–497Google Scholar
  27. Neuffer, M.G., Jones, L., Zuber, M.S. (1968) The mutants of maize. Crop Science Society of America, Madison, Wis., USAGoogle Scholar
  28. Rhodes, C.A., Green, C.E., Phillips, R.L. (1982) Regenerable maize tissue cultures derived from immature tassels. Maize Genet. Coop. Newslett. 56, 148–149Google Scholar
  29. Rice, T.B. (1982) Tissue culture induced genetic variation in regenerated maize inbreds. In: Proc. 37th Ann. Corn and Sorghum Industry Res. Conf., pp. 148–162, Loden, H.D., Wilkinson, D., eds. American Seed Trade Association, Washington, D.C., USAGoogle Scholar
  30. Rice, T.B., Reid, R.K., Gordon, P.N. (1978) Morphogenesis in field crops. In: Propagation of higher plants through tissue cultre, pp. 262–277, Hughes, K.W., Henke, R., Constantin, M., eds. National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Va., USAGoogle Scholar
  31. Sachs, M.M., Lorz, H., Dennis, E.S., Elizur, A., Ferl, R.J., Gerlach, W.L., Pryor, A.J., Peacock, W.J. (1982) Molecular genetic analysis of the maize anaerobic response. In: Maize for biological research, pp. 139–144, Sheridan, W., ed. Plant Molecular Biology Association, Charlottesville, Va., USAGoogle Scholar
  32. Springer, W.D., Green, C.E., Kohn, K.A. (1979) A histological examination of tissue culture initiation from immature embryos of maize. Protoplasma 101, 269–281Google Scholar
  33. Torne, J.M., Santos, M.A., Pons, A., Blanco, M. (1980) Regeneration of plants from mesocotyl tissue cultures of immature embryos of Zea mays L. Plant Sci. Lett. 17, 339–344Google Scholar
  34. Zuber, M.S., Darrah, L.L. (1980) 1979 U.S. Corn Germplasm Base. In: Proc. 35th Ann. Corn and Sorghum Industry Res. Conf., pp. 234–249, Loden, H.D., Wilkinson, D., eds. American Seed Trade Association, Washington, D.C., USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. R. Duncan
    • 1
  • M. E. Williams
    • 1
  • B. E. Zehr
    • 1
  • J. M. Widholm
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations