Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 357–366 | Cite as

Some development patterns of plankton communities in the upwelling areas of the Pacific Ocean

  • M. E. Vinogradov
  • E. A. Shushkina
Article

Abstract

The principal trophic levels, each subdivided into groups of organismic elements, are distinguished in the planktonic communities of the Eastern Equatorial and the Peruvian upwellings. Production intensity or metabolism have been determined experimentally for all elements. A scheme is suggested for computing production from data on metabolism for all the elements of a community, as well as for computing net and real production and other functional characteristics for definite trophic levels and the community as a whole. Based on the quantitative estimation of the efficiency of primary production and other functional characteristics, the development of communities is divided into production and destruction periods; they are, in turn, subdivided into steps associated with a certain degree of water trophicity. The balance of net production of the communities in the Peruvian upwelling indicates that the excess production of a community above the shelf is utilized completely in the narrow (100 to 150 sea miles) band of off-shore water. This paper describes an attempt to trace the changes taking place in the functional characteristics of plankton communities and to compare them with the changes observed in the communities of the Peruvian and East-Equatorial upwellings.

Keywords

Pacific Ocean Trophic Level Quantitative Estimation Functional Characteristic Development Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Arashkevich, E.G.: Duration of food digestion in marine copepods. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 351–357 (1975)Google Scholar
  2. Fedorov, K. N., V.A. Bubnov, V.I. Prokhorov and A.S. Osadchy: Hydrophysical conditions in the Peruvian coastal area. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 51–55 (1975a)Google Scholar
  3. —, V.I. Prokhorov and V.A. Bubnov: Thermohaline mesostructure of the equatorial current system in the eastern half of the Pacific. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 24–33 (1975b)Google Scholar
  4. Flint, M.V.: Trophic structure and vertical distribution of trophic groups of mesoplankton off the Equator (97°W). Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 238–244 (1975)Google Scholar
  5. Ivlev, V.S.: Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes, 251 pp. Moscow: Pisheptromisdat 1955. (Engl. ed. New Haven: Yale University Press 1961)Google Scholar
  6. Klekovski, R.Z., I.V. Kukina and N.I. Tumantseva: Metabolic rates in microzooplankton. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 379–383 (1975)Google Scholar
  7. Koblentz-Mishke, O.I.: The primary production of the Pacific Ocean. Okeanologia, Mosk. 5, 325–337 (1965)Google Scholar
  8. Menshutkin, V.V.: Mathematical modeling of populations and aquatic communities. 196 pp. Leningrad: Nauka 1971Google Scholar
  9. Mikheev, V.N.: Structural characteristics of a zoocoenosis in the Peruvian coastal upwelling. Okeanologia, Mosk. 17, 700–706 (1977)Google Scholar
  10. Musaeva, E.I. and E.A. Shushkina: The respiration of marine plankton animals. Okeanologia, Mosk. 18 (In press). (1978)Google Scholar
  11. — and Z. Vitek: Respiration of planktonic animals in the equatorial part of the Pacific Ocean. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 358–364 (1975)Google Scholar
  12. Pavlova, E.V., T.S. Petipa and Yu.I. Sorokin: The role of bacterioplankton in the diet of marine pelagic organisms. In: Functioning of pelagic communities in the tropical regions of the oceans, pp 142–151. Ed. by M.E. Vinogradov. Moscow: Nauka 1971Google Scholar
  13. Petipa, T.S., A.V. Monakov, Yu.I. Sorokin, G.V. Voloshina and I.V. Kukina: Balance of the matter and energy in copepods in tropical upwelling. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 335–350 (1975)Google Scholar
  14. —, E.V. Pavlova and Yu.I. Sorokin: Radiocarbon studies of feeding of the mass plankton forms in the tropical Pacific. In: Functioning of pelagic communities in the tropical regions of the oceans, Ed. by M.E. Vinogradov. pp 123–141. Moscow: Nauka 1971Google Scholar
  15. Shushkina, E.A.: Zooplankton production and biomass relationship in lakes. Gidrobiol. Zh., Kiev 2, 27–35 (1966)Google Scholar
  16. —: Zooplankton production. In: Okeanologia. Biology of the ocean Vol. 2. pp 233–246. Ed. by M.E. Vinogradov. Moscow: Nauka 1977Google Scholar
  17. — and Yu.Ya. Kislyakov: An estimation of the zooplankton productivity in the equatorial part of the Pacific Ocean and Peruvian upwelling. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 384–395 (1975)Google Scholar
  18. — and E.P. Pavlova: Rates of metabolism and production of zooplankton in the Equatorial Pacific. Okeanologia, Mosk. 13, 339–345 (1973)Google Scholar
  19. Shushkina, E.A., M.E. Vinogradov, Yu.I. Sorokin, L.P. Lebedeva and V.N. Mikheev: The peculiarities of functioning of plankton communities in the Peruvian upwelling. Okeanologia, Mosk. 18 (In press). (1978)Google Scholar
  20. Sorokin, Yu.I.: Data on biological productivity of the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean. Mar. Biol. 20, 177–196 (1973)Google Scholar
  21. —: Bacterial production. In: Okeanologia. Biology of the ocean, Vol. 2. pp 209–233. Ed. by M.E. Vinogradov. Moscow: Nauka 1977Google Scholar
  22. —: Primary production and heterotrophic microplankton in Peruvian upwelling. Okeanologia, Mosk. 18, 97–110 (1978)Google Scholar
  23. —, E.B. Pavelyeva and M.I. Vasilyeva: Productivity and trophic role of bacterioplankton in the area of equatorial divergence. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 184–198 (1975a)Google Scholar
  24. —, I.N. Sukhanova, G.V. Konovalova and E.B. Pavelyeva: Primary production and phytoplankton in the area of equatorial divergence in the Equatorial Pacific. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 108–122 (1975b)Google Scholar
  25. Steemann Nielsen, E. and A. Jensen: Primary oceanic production, the autotrophic production of organic matter in the oceans. Galathea Rep. 1, 49–136 (1957)Google Scholar
  26. Sukhanova, I.N., G.V. Konovalova and T.N. Ratikova: Phytoplankton numbers and species structure in the Peruvian upwelling. Okeanologia, Mosk. 18, 111–117 (1978)Google Scholar
  27. Timonin, A.G. and N.M. Voronina: Distribution of the net zooplankton along the Equator. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 213–231 (1975)Google Scholar
  28. Tumantseva, N.I. and Yu.I. Sorokin: Microzoo-plankton of the area of equatorial divergence in the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 200–212 (1975)Google Scholar
  29. Vinogradov, M.E.: The 17-th cruise of R/V “Akademik Kurchatov” (Investigation of the plankton communities in the east Pacific upwelling regions). Okeanologia, Mosk. 14, 941–946 (1974)Google Scholar
  30. Vinogradov, M.E. (Ed.): Ecosystems of the pelagic zone of the Pacific Ocean. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 102, 1–399 (1975)Google Scholar
  31. —: Some physical and biological features of equatorial upwellings. Byull. mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir. (Ser. Biol.) 83 (1), 5–16 (1978)Google Scholar
  32. —, F.V. Krapivin, V.V. Menshutkin, B.S. Fleishman and E.A. Shushkina: Mathematical simulation of functioning of the pelagic ecosystem in the tropical ocean (based on the materials of the 50-th cruise of the R/V “Vityaz”). Okeanologia, Mosk. 13, 852–866 (1973)Google Scholar
  33. —, I.V. Kukina, L.P. Lebedeva and E.A. Shushkina: Changes with depth of the functional characteristics of a plankton community in the Pacific equatorial upwelling. Okeanologia, Mosk. 17, 524–531 (1977)Google Scholar
  34. —, E.A. Shushkina and I.N. Kukina: Functional characteristics of a planktonic community in the equatorial upwelling. Okeanologia, Mosk. 16, 122–138 (1976)Google Scholar
  35. Winberg, G.G.: An experience in the studies of photosynthesis and respiration in lakes. Trudy limnol. Sta. Kosine 18, 5–24 (1934)Google Scholar
  36. —: Primary production of water bodies, 329 pp. Minsk: Isdat. Akad. Nauk BSSR 1960Google Scholar
  37. —: Results of studies in productivity of freshwater communities of all trophic levels. In: Resources of the biosphere (synthesis of the Soviet studies for the international biological programme), Vol. 2. pp 145–157. Ed. by G.G. Winberg. Leningrad: Nauka 1976Google Scholar
  38. Zaika, V.E.: Specific production of invertebrates, 147 pp. Kiev: Naukova Dumka 1972Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. E. Vinogradov
    • 1
  • E. A. Shushkina
    • 1
  1. 1.Shirshov Institute of OceanologyAcademy of Sciences USSRMoscowUSSR

Personalised recommendations