Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 29–39 | Cite as

Field behavior and adaptive strategies of appendicularians (Chordata: Tunicata)

  • A. L. Alldredge
Article

Abstract

The behavior of 7 species of appendicularians from the family Oikopleuridae was observed using SCUBA in the Gulf of California and the Florida Current. The frequency and orientation of feeding and the pattern of swimming while within the house varied considerably among species. Appendicularians expanded new houses in 1 1/2 to 5 min. House-expansion behavior was complex and variable among species. Appendicularians rarely abandoned the house in response to predation. Predators included the sergeant major (Abudefduf sp.), medusae, chaetognaths and ctenophores. The abandonment of the house was based on a cost-benefit behavior strategy which maximized time spent inside the house while minimizing predation and energy investment in house secretion. Strategies of predator avoidance are discussed.

Keywords

Adaptive Strategy Predator Avoidance Field Behavior Energy Investment Behavior Strategy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Alldredge, A.L.: Abandoned larvacean houses: a unique food source in the pelagic environment. Science, N. Y. 177, 885–887 (1972)Google Scholar
  2. Alldredge, A.L.: Quantitative natural history and ecology of appendicularians and discarded appendicularian houses, 152 pp. Ph. D. Thesis, University of California, Davis 1975Google Scholar
  3. —: Discarded appendicularian houses as sources of food, surface habitats, and particulate organic matter in planktonic environments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 21, 14–23 (1976)Google Scholar
  4. Bainbridge, R.: Underwater observations of the swimming of marine zooplankton. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 31, 107–112 (1952)Google Scholar
  5. Barham, E.G.: Deep scattering layer migration and composition: observations from a diving saucer. Science, N.Y. 151, 1399–1402 (1966)Google Scholar
  6. Beebe, W.: A half mile down, 334 pp. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co. 1934Google Scholar
  7. Bernard, F.: Plancton et benthos observés durant trois plongeés en bathyscaphe du large de Tulon. Annls Inst. océanogr., Monaco 35, 287–326 (1958)Google Scholar
  8. Bone, Q. and G.O. Mackie: Skin impulses and locomotion in Oikopleura (Tunicata: Larvacea). Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 149, 267–286 (1975)Google Scholar
  9. Emery, A.R.: Preliminary observations on coral reef plankton. Limnol Oceanogr. 13, 293–303 (1968)Google Scholar
  10. Fenaux, R.: Les appendiculaires des mers d'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen, 116 pp. Paris: Masson & Cie 1967Google Scholar
  11. — et B. Hirel: Cinétique de déploiement de la logette chez l'appendiculaire Oikopleura dioica Fol. 1872. C.r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris (Ser. D) 275, 449–452 (1972)Google Scholar
  12. Fol, H.: Études sur les appendiculaires du détroit de Messine. Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. nat. Genève 21, 445–449 (1872)Google Scholar
  13. Forneris, L.: Appendicularian species groups and southern Brazil water masses. Bolm Inst. Oceanogr. S Paulo 14, 53–114 (1965)Google Scholar
  14. Galt, C.P.: Development of Oikopleura dioica (Urochordata: Larvacea), 83 pp. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington 1972Google Scholar
  15. Golley, F.B.: Energy values of ecological materials. Ecology 42, 581–584 (1961)Google Scholar
  16. Hamner, W.M.: Underwater observations of bluewater plankton: logistics, techniques, and safety procedures for divers at sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 1045–1051 (1975)Google Scholar
  17. —, L.P. Madin, A.L. Alldredge, R.W., Gilmer and P.P. Hamner: Underwater observations of gelatinous zooplankton: sampling problems, feeding biology and behavior. Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 907–917 (1975)Google Scholar
  18. Hardy, A.C.: The herring in relation to its animate environment. I. The food and feeding habits of herring. Fishery Invest., London (Ser. 2) 7, (1924)Google Scholar
  19. Hirota, J.: Quantitative natural history of Pleurobrachia bachei A. Agassiz in the La Jolla Bight, 197 pp. Ph. D. Thesis, University of California San Diego 1973Google Scholar
  20. Körner, W.F.: Untersuchungen über die Gehäusebildung bei Appendicularien (Oikopleura dioica Fol.). Z. Morph. Ökol. Tiere 41, 1–53 (1952)Google Scholar
  21. Lohmann, H.: Das Gehäuse der Appendicularien, sein Bau, seine Funktion und seine Entstehung. Schr. naturw. Ver. Schlesw.-Holst. 11, 347–407 (1899)Google Scholar
  22. —: Die Gehäuse und Gallertblasen der Appendicularien und ihre Bedeutung für die Erforschung des Lebens im Meer. Verh. dt. zool. Ges. 19, 200–239 (1909)Google Scholar
  23. Owen, R.W.: Small-scale, horizontal vortices in the surface layer of the sea. Deep-Sea Res. 24, 56–65 (1966)Google Scholar
  24. Paffenhöfer, G.A.: The cultivation of an appendicularian through numerous generations. Mar. Biol. 22, 183–185 (1973)Google Scholar
  25. Paine, R.T.: Ash and calorie determinations of sponge and opisthobranch tissues. Ecology 45, 384–387 (1964)Google Scholar
  26. Radovich, J.: Food of the Pacific sardine, Sardinops caerulae, from central Baja California and southern California. Calif. Fish Game 48, 557–585 (1952)Google Scholar
  27. Ryland, J.S.: The feeding of plaice and sand-eel larvae in the southern North Sea. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 44, 343–364 (1964)Google Scholar
  28. Sharp, J.H.: Improved analysis for particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in seawater. Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 984–989 (1974)Google Scholar
  29. Shelbourne, J.E.: A predator-prey size relationship for plaice larvae feeding on Oikopleura. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 42, 243–252 (1962)Google Scholar
  30. Slobodkin, L.B. and S. Richman: Calories gm. in species of animals. Nature, Lond. 191, p. 299 (1961)Google Scholar
  31. Tregouboff, G.: Sur l'emploi de la tourelle submersible Galeazzi pour les observations biologiques sous-marines à faibles profondeurs. Bull. Inst. océanogr. Monaco 1070, 1–5 (1955)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. L. Alldredge
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Graduate Group in EcologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of California, Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations