Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Evidence for a relationship between malate metabolism and activity of 1-sinapoylglucose: L-malate sinapoyltransferase in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cotyledons

  • 29 Accesses

  • 11 Citations


The control of malate metabolism and stimulation of 1-sinapolyglucose: L-malate sinapoyltransferase (SMT) activity in radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) cotyledons has been studied. The light-induced and nitrate-dependent activity of SMT catalyzes the formation of O-sinapoly-L-malate via 1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose. When dark-grown radish seedlings, cultivated in quartz sand with nutrient solution containing NO 3 - as the sole N source, were treated with light, SMT activity increased concomitantly with free malate in the cotyledons. This light effect was suppressed in seedlings grown in a culture medium which contained in addition to NO 3 - also NH 4 + . However, treatment with methionine sulfoximine neutralized this ammonium effect, resulting again in both rapid accumulation of malate and rapid increase in SMT activity. When seedlings grown on NO 3 - nitrogen were subsequently supplied with NH 4 + nitrogen, the accumulated level of L-malate rapidly dropped and the SMT increase ceased. The enzyme activity decreased later on, reaching the low activity level of plants which were grown permanently on NO 3 - /NH 4 + -nitrogen. An external supply (vacuum infiltration) of malate to excised cotyledons and intact seedings, grown on NO 3 - /NH 4 + -nitrogen medium, specifically promoted a dose-dependent increase in the activity of SMT. In summary these results provide evidence indicating that the SMT activity in cotyledons of Raphanus sativus might be related to the metabolism of malic acid.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



L-methionine sulfoximine






1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose:L-malate sinapolytransferase


  1. Ben Zioni, A., Vaadia, Y., Lips, S.H. (1970) Correlations between nitrate reduction, protein synthesis and malate accumulation. Physiol. Plant. 23, 1039–1047

  2. Bergmann, L., Große, W., Koth, P. (1976) Einfluß von Ammonium und Nitrat auf Stickstoff-Metabolismus, Malatanhäufung und Malatenzym-Aktivität in Suspensionskulturen von Nicotiana tabacum var. “Samsun”. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 80, 60–70

  3. Bradford, M.M. (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72, 248–254

  4. Dahlbender, B., Strack, D. (1984) Nitrogen nutrition and the accumulation of free and sinapolyl-bound malic acid in Raphanus sativus cotyledons. Planta 161, 142–147

  5. Fourcroy, P., Lambert, C., Klein-Eude, D. (1985) Phytochrome control of gene expression in radish seedlings. I. Far-red light mediated stimulation of polyribosome formation and appearance pf translatable mRNAs. Plant Sci. Lett. 37, 227–234

  6. Ghorbel, A., Mouatassim, B., Faye, L. (1984) Studies on β-fructosidase from radish seedlings. V. Immunochemical evidence for an enzyme photoregulated transfer from cytoplasm to cell wall. Plant Sci. Lett. 35, 35–41

  7. Hahlbrock, K., Knobloch, K.H., Krezaler, F., Potts, J.R.M., Wellmann, E. (1976) Coordinated induction and subsequent activity changes of two groups of metabolically interrelated enzymes. Eur. J. Biochem. 61, 199–206

  8. Hahlbrock, K., Kuhn, D.N., Chappell, J., Boudet, A., Reimold, U. (1983) Differential gene activation in higher plants. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 96, 375–377

  9. Kirkby, E.A., Knight, A.H. (1977) Influence of the level of nitrate nutrition on ion uptake and assimilation, organic acid accumulation, and cation-anion balance in whole tomato plants. Plant Physiol. 60, 349–353

  10. Kreuzaler, F., Ragg, H., Fautz, E., Kuhn, D.N., Hahlbrock, K. (1983) UV-Induction of chalcone synthase mRNA in cell suspension cultures of Petroselinum hortense. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 2591–2593

  11. Lamb, C.J. (1977) Trans-cinnamic acid as a mediator of the light-stimulated increase in hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase. FEBS Lett. 75, 37–40

  12. Lamb, C.J. (1979) Regulation of enzyme levels in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis: characterization of the modulation by light and pathway intermediates. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 192, 311–317

  13. Luckner, M., Nover, L. (1977) Expression of secondary metabolism. An aspect of cell specialization of microorganisms, higher plants, and animals. In: Secondary metabolism and cell differentiation. Molecular biology, biochemistry and biophysics, vol. 23, pp. 1–102, Luckner, M., Nover, L., Böhm, H., eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York

  14. Möllering, H. (1974) Bestimmung der Malat-Dehydrogenase und Glutamat-Oxalacetat Transaminase. In: Methods of enzymatic analysis, 3rd edn., vol. 2., pp. 1636–1639, Bergmeyer, H.U., ed. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, Academic Press, New York London San Francisco

  15. Mothes, K. (1933) Die Vakuuminfiltration in Ernährungsversuch. (Dargestellt an Untersuchungen über die Assimilation des Ammoniaks.) Planta 19, 117–138

  16. Ronzio, R., Meister, A. (1968) Phosphorylation of methionine sulfoximine by glutamine synthetase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59, 164–178

  17. Sautter, C., Hock, B. (1982) Fluorescence immunohistochemical localization of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in watermelon cotyledons. A developmental study of glyoxysomes and mitochondria. Plant Physiol. 70, 1162–1168

  18. Schnabl, H. (1981) The compartmentation of carboxylating and decarboxylating enzymes in guard cell protoplasts. Planta 152, 307–313

  19. Sharma, V., Strack, D. (1985) Vacuolar localization of 1-sinpoylglucose:L-malate sinapoyltransferase in protoplasts from cotyledons of Raphanus sativus. Planta 163, 563–568

  20. Skokut, T.A., Wolk, C.P., Thomas, J., Meeks, J.C., Schaffer, P.W. (1978) Initial organic products of assimilation of (13N)ammonium and (13N)nitrate by tobacco cells cultured on different sources of nitrogen. Plant. Physiol. 62, 299–304

  21. Smith, H., Billett, E.E., Giles, A.B. (1977) The photocontrol of gene expression in higher plants. In: Regulation of enzyme synthesis and activity in higher plants. Phytochem. Soc. Symp. Series 14, pp. 93–127, Smith, H., ed. Academic Press, London New York San Francisco

  22. Steward, G.R., Rhodes, D. (1977) Control of enzyme levels in the regulation of nitrogen assimilation. In: Regulation of enzyme synthesis and activity in higher plants. Phytochem. Soc. Symp. Series 14, pp. 1–22, Smith, H., ed. Academic Press, London New York San Francisco

  23. Strack, D. (1982) Development of 1-O-sinapoyl-β-L-glucose:L-malate sinapoyltransferase activity in cotyledons of red radish (Raphanus sativus L. var sativus). Planta 155, 31–36

  24. Strack, D., Pieroth, M., Scharf, H., Scharma, V. (1985) Tissue distribution of phenylpropanoid metabolism in cotyledons of Raphanus sativus. Planta 164, 507–511

  25. Strack, D., Sharma, V. (1985) Vacuolar localization of the enzymatic synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid esters of malic acid in protoplasts from Raphanus sativus leaves. Physiol. Plant. 65, 45–50

  26. Tkotz, N., Strack, D. (1980) Enzymatic synthesis of sinapoyl-L-malate from 1-sinapoylglucose and L-malate by a protein preparation from Raphanus sativus cotyledons. Z. Naturforsch. Teil C 35, 835–837

  27. Winter, K., Usuda, H., Tuzuki, M., Schmitt, M., Edwards, G.E., Thomas, R.J., Evert, R.F. (1982) Influence of nitrate and ammonia on photosynthetic characteristics and leaf anatomy of Moricandia arvensis. Plant Physiol. 70, 616–625

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to D. Strack.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Strack, D., Reinecke, J. & Takeuchi, S. Evidence for a relationship between malate metabolism and activity of 1-sinapoylglucose: L-malate sinapoyltransferase in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cotyledons. Planta 167, 212–217 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00391417

Download citation

Key words

  • Amino acid synthesis (inhibition)
  • Malate
  • Nitrogen nutrition
  • Phenylpropanoid metabolism
  • Raphanus
  • Seedling development
  • 1-Sinapoylglucose:L-malate sinapoyltransferase (control)