Planta

, Volume 171, Issue 2, pp 171–184 | Cite as

Comparison of the effect of excessive light on chlorophyll fluorescence (77K) and photon yield of O2 evolution in leaves of higher plants

  • Barbara Demmig
  • Olle Björkman
Article

Abstract

High-light treatments (1750–2000 μmol photons m−2 · s−1) of leaves from a number of higher-plant species invariably resulted in quenching of the maximum 77K chlorophyll fluorescence at both 692 and 734 nm (FM, 692 and FM, 734). The response of instantaneous fluorescence at 692 nm (FO, 692) was complex. In leaves of some species FO, 692 increased dramatically in others it was quenched, and in others yet it showed no marked, consistent change. Regardless of the response of FO, 692 an apparently linear relationship was obtained between the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (FV/FM, 692) and the photon yield of O2 evolution, indicating that photoinhibition affects these two variables to approximately the same extent. Treatment of leaves in a CO2−free gas stream containing 2% O2 and 98% N2 under weak light (100 μmol · m−2 · s−1) resulted in a general and fully reversible quenching of 77K fluorescence at 692 and 734 nm. In this case both FO, 692 and FM, 692 were invariably quenched, indicating that the quenching was caused by an increased non-radiative energy dissipation in the pigment bed. We propose that high-light treatments can have at least two different, concurrent effects on 77K fluorescence in leaves. One results from damage to the photosystem II (PSII) reaction-center complex and leads to a rise in FO, 692; the other results from an increased non-radiative energy dissipation and leads to quenching of both FO, 692 and FM, 692 This general quenching had a much longer relaxation time than reported for ΔpH-dependent quenching in algae and chloroplasts. Sun leaves, whose FV/FM, 692 ratios were little affected by high-light exposure in normal air, suffered pronounced photoinhibition when the exposure was made under conditions that prevent photosynthetic gas exchange (2% O2, 0% CO2). However, they were still less susceptible than shade leaves, indicating that the higher capacity for energy dissipation via photosynthesis is not the only cause of their lower susceptibility. The rate constant for recovery from photoinhibition was much higher in mature sun leaves than in mature shade leaves, indicating that differences in the capacity for continuous repair may in part account for the difference in their susceptibility to photoinhibition.

Key words

Chlorophyll fluorescence (77K) Light (excessive) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis Photosynthesis (photon yield) Quantum yield 

Abbreviations and symbols

kDa

kilodalton

LHC-II

light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex

PFD

photon flux density (photon fluence rate)

PSI, PSII

photosystem I, II

FO, FM, FV

instantaneous, maximum, variable fluorescence emission

α

absorptance

φa

photon yield of O2 evolution (absorbed light)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Björkman, O. (1981) Responses to different quantum flux densities. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, N.S., vol. 12A: Interactions with the physical environment, pp. 57–107. Lange, O.L., Nobel, P.S., Osmond, C.B., Ziegler, H., eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Björkman, O., Boardman, N.K., Anderson, J.M., Thorne, S.W., Goodchild, D.J., Pylotis, N.A. (1972) Effect of light intensity during growth of Atriplex patula on the capacity of photosynthetic reactions, chloroplast components and structure. Carnegie Inst. Washington Yearb. 71, 115–135Google Scholar
  3. Björkman, O., Demmig, B. (1987) Photon yield of O2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77K among vascular plants of diverse origin. Planta 170, 489–504Google Scholar
  4. Björkman, O., Powles, S.T. (1984) Inhibition of photosynthetic reactions under water stress: interaction with light level. Planta 161, 490–504Google Scholar
  5. Butler, W.L. (1978) Energy distribution in the photochemical apparatus of photosyntheis. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 29, 345–378Google Scholar
  6. Critchley, C., Smillie, R.M. (1981) Leaf chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of photoinhibition in Cucumis sativus L. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 8, 133–141Google Scholar
  7. Demmig, B., Cleland, R., Björkman, O. (1987) Photoinhibition, chlorophyll fluorescence (77K) and phosphorylation of LHC-II. Planta 111, in pressGoogle Scholar
  8. Ehleringer, J., Björkman, O. (1977) Quantum yields for CO2 uptake in C3 and C4 plants. Dependence on temperature, CO2 and O2 concentrations. Plant Physiol. 59, 86–90Google Scholar
  9. Fork, D.C., Öquist, G., Powles, S.B. (1981) Photoinhibition in bean: A fluorescence analysis. Carnegie Inst. Washington Yearb. 80, 52–57Google Scholar
  10. Greer, D., Berry, J.A., Björkman, O. (1986) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact bean leaves: role of light and temperature and requirement for chloroplast-protein synthesis during recovery. Planta 168, 253–260Google Scholar
  11. Horton, P. (1985) Interactions between electron transfer and carbon assimilation. In: Photosynthetic mechanisms and the environment, vol. 6, pp. 135–187, Barber, J., Baker, N.R., eds. Elsevier Biomedical Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  12. Kitajima, M., Butler, W.L. (1975) Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and primary photochemistry in chloroplasts by dibromothymoquinone. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 376, 105–115Google Scholar
  13. Krause, G.H., Briantais, J.-M., Vernotte, C. (1983) Characterization of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in chloroplasts by fluorescence spectroscopy at 77K. I. ΔpH-dependent quenching. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 723, 169–175Google Scholar
  14. Krause, G.H., Vernotte, C., Briantais, J.-M. (1982) Photoinduced quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in intact chloroplasts and algae. Resolution into two components. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 679, 116–124Google Scholar
  15. Ludlow, M., Björkman, O. (1984) Paraheliotropic leaf movement in Siratro as a protective mechanism against drought-induced damage to primary photosynthetic reactions: damage by excessive light and heat. Planta 161, 505–518Google Scholar
  16. Ögren, E., Öquist, G. (1984a) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Lemna gibba as induced by the interaction between light and temperature. I. Photosynthesis in vivo. Physiol. Plant. 62, 181–186Google Scholar
  17. Ögren, E., Öquist, G. (1984b) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Lemna gibba as induced by the interaction between light and temperature. II. Photosynthetic electron transport. Physiol Plant. 62, 187–192Google Scholar
  18. Ögren, E., Öquist, G. (1984c) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Lemna gibba as induced by the interaction between light and temperature. III. Chlorophyll fluorescence at 77K. Physiol. Plant. 62, 193–200Google Scholar
  19. Ohad, I., Kyle, D.J., Arntzen C.J. (1984) Membrane protein damage and repair: removal and replacement of inactivated 32-kilodalton polypeptides in chloroplast membranes. J. Cell. Biol. 99, 481–485Google Scholar
  20. Powles, S.B. (1984) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis induced by visible light. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35, 15–44Google Scholar
  21. Powles, S.B., Björkman, O. (1981) Leaf movement in the shade species Oxalis oregana. II. Role in protection against injury by intense light. Carnegie Inst. Washington Yearb. 80, 63–66Google Scholar
  22. Powles, S.B., Björkman, O. (1982) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis: effect on chlorophyll fluorescence at 77K in intact leaves and in chloroplast membranes. Planta 156, 97–107Google Scholar
  23. Powles, S.B., Osmond, C.B., Thorne, S.W. (1979) Photonhibition of intact attached leaves of C3 plants illuminated in the absence of both carbon dioxide and of photorespiration. Plant Physiol. 64, 982–988Google Scholar
  24. Schreiber, U., Schliwa, U., Bilger, W. (1986) Continuous recording of photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching with a new type of modulation fluorometer. Photosynthesis Res. 10, 51–62Google Scholar
  25. Yamamoto, H.Y. (1979) Biochemistry of the violaxanthin cycle in higher plants. Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 639–648Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Demmig
    • 1
  • Olle Björkman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant BiologyCarnegie Institution of WashingtonStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations