Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 103, Issue 1, pp 131–142 | Cite as

Phytoplankton carbon dynamics during a winter-spring diatom bloom in an enclosed marine ecosystem: primary production, biomass and loss rates

  • A. A. Keller
  • U. Riebesell
Article

Abstract

Phytoplankton production, standing crop, and loss processes (respiration, sedimentation, grazing by zooplankton, and excretion) were measured on a daily basis during the growth, dormancy and decline of a winter-spring diatom bloom in a large-scale (13 m3) marine mesocosm in 1987. Carbonspecific rates of production and biomass change were highly correlated whereas production and loss rates were unrelated over the experimental period when the significant changes in algal biomass characteristic of phytoplankton blooms were occurring. The observed decline in diatom growth rates was caused by nutrient limitation. Daily phytoplankton production rates calculated from the phytoplankton continuity equation were in excellent agreement with rates independently determined using standard 14C techniques. A carbon budget for the winter bloom indicated that 82.4% of the net daytime primary production was accounted for by measured loss processes, 1.3% was present as standing crop at the end of the experiment, and 16.3% was unexplained. Losses via sedimentation (44.8%) and nighttime phytoplankton respiration (24.1%) predominated, while losses due to zooplankton grazing (10.7%) and nighttime phytoplankton excretion (2.8%) were of lesser importance. A model simulating daily phytoplankton biomass was developed to demonstrate the relative importance of the individual loss processes.

Keywords

Biomass Phytoplankton Algal Biomass Standing Crop Nutrient Limitation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Andersen, V., Nival, P. (1987). Modelling of a planktonic ecosystem in an enclosed water column. J. Marine Biology Ass. U.K. 67: 407–430Google Scholar
  2. APHA (American Public Health Association), American Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation. (1980). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Bathmann, U. V., Noji, T. T., Voss, M., Peinert, R. (1987). Copepod fecal pellets: abundance, sedimentation, and content at a permanent station in the Norwegian Sea in May/June 1986. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 38: 45–51Google Scholar
  4. Bell, W. H., Lang, J. M., Mitchell, R. (1974). Selective stimulation of marine bacteria by algal extracellular products. Limnol. Oceanogr. 19: 833–839Google Scholar
  5. Berman, T., Pollingher, U. (1974). Annual and seasonal variations of phytoplankton, chlorophyll and photosynthesis in Lake Kinneret. Limnol. Oceanogr. 19: 31–54Google Scholar
  6. Chrost, R. J., Faust, M. A. (1983). Organic carbon release by phytoplankton: its composition and utilization by bacterioplankton. J. Plankton Res. 5: 477–493Google Scholar
  7. Conover, R. J. (1966). Factors affecting the assimilation organic matter by zooplankton and the question of superfluous feeding. Limnol. Oceanogr. 11: 346–354Google Scholar
  8. Copping, A. E., Lorenzen, C. J. (1980). Carbon budget of a marine phytoplankton-herbivore system with carbon-14 as a tracer. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 873–882Google Scholar
  9. Coveney, M. F., Cronberg, G., Enell, M., Larsson, K., Olofsson, L. (1977). Phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria-standing crop and production relationships in a eutrophic lake. Oikos 29: 5–21Google Scholar
  10. Deason, E. E. (1980). Grazing of Acartia hudsonica (A. clausi) on Skeletonema costatum in Narragansett Bay (USA): influence of food concentration and temperature. Marine Biology 60: 101–113Google Scholar
  11. Derenbach, J. B., Williams, P. J., le B. (1974). Autotrophic and bacterial production: fractionation of plankton populations by differential filtration of samples from the English Channel. Marine Biology 25: 263–269Google Scholar
  12. Down, J., Lorenzen, C. J. (1985). Carbon: pheopigment ratios of zooplankton fecal pellets as an index of herbivorous feeding. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30: 1024–1036Google Scholar
  13. Durbin, E. G., Kraweic, R. W., Smayda, T. J. (1975). Seasonal studies on the relative importance of different size fractions of phytoplankton in Narragansett Bay (USA). Marine Biology 32: 271–287Google Scholar
  14. Eppley, R. W., Reid, F. M. H., Strickland, J. D. H. (1970). Estimates of phytoplankton crop size, growth rate and primary production. Bull. Scripps Instn Oceanogr. 17: 33–42Google Scholar
  15. Falkowski, P. G., Flagg, C. N., Rowe, G. T., Smith, S. L., Whitledge, T. E., Wirick, C. D. (1988). The fate of a spring phytoplankton bloom: export or oxidation? Contin. Shelf Res. 8: 457–484Google Scholar
  16. Forsberg, B. R. (1985). The fate of planktonic primary production. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30: 807–819Google Scholar
  17. Graf, G., Bengtsson, W., Diesner, U., Schulz, R., Theede, H. (1982). Benthic response to sedimentation of a spring phytoplankton bloom: process and budget. Marine Biology 67: 201–208Google Scholar
  18. Hecky, R. E., Fee, E. J. (1981). Primary production and rates of algal growth in Lake Tanganyika. Limnol. Oceanogr. 26: 532–547Google Scholar
  19. Hellebust, J. A. (1974). Extracellular products. In: Stewart, W.D.P. (ed.) Algal physiology and biochemistry. Blackwell, Oxford, p. 838–863Google Scholar
  20. Hobson, L. A., Morris, W. J., Pirquet, K. T. (1976). Theoretical and experimental analysis of the 14C technique and its use in studies of primary production. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 33: 1715–1721Google Scholar
  21. Jassby, A. D., Goldman, C. R. (1974). Loss rates from a lake phytoplankton community. Limnol. Oceanogr. 19: 618–627Google Scholar
  22. Jensen, L. M. (1983). Phytoplankton release of extracellular organic carbon, molecular weight composition, and bacterial assimilation. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 11: 39–48Google Scholar
  23. Jewson, D. H., Rippley, B. H., Gilmore, W. K. (1981). Loss rates from sedimentation, parasitism, and grazing during the growth, nutrient limitation, and dormancy of a diatom crop. Limnol. Oceanogr. 26: 1045–1056Google Scholar
  24. Karentz, D., Smayda, T. J. (1984). Temperature and seasonal occurrence patterns of 30 dominant phytoplankton species in Narragansett Bay over a 22-year period (1959–1980). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 18: 277–293Google Scholar
  25. Keller, A. A. (1986). Modeling the productivity of natural phytoplankton populations using mesocosm data along a nutrient gradient. Ph.D. thesis, University of Rhode IslandGoogle Scholar
  26. Keller, A. A. (1988). An empirical model of primary productivity (14C) using mesocosm data along a nutrient gradient. J Plankton Res. 10: 813–834Google Scholar
  27. Knoechel, R. (1977). Analyzing the significance of grazing in Lake Erken. Limnol. Oceanogr. 22: 967–969Google Scholar
  28. Kovala, T. E., Larrance, J. D. (1966). Computation of phytoplankton cell numbers cell volume, cell surface, and volume per liter from microscopical counts. Spec. Rept. No. 38, University of Washington. Dept. Oceanogr. M 66-1Google Scholar
  29. Lancelot, C. (1979). Gross excretion rates of natural marine phytoplankton and heterotrophic uptake of excreted products in the southern North Sea, as determined by short-term kinetics. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1: 179–186Google Scholar
  30. Laws, E. A., Archie, J. W. (1981). Appropriate use of regression analysis in marine biology. Marine Biology 65: 13–16Google Scholar
  31. Laws, E. A., Bannister, T. T. (1980). Nutrient and light-limited growth of Thalassiosira fluviatilis in continuous culture, with implications for phytoplankton growth in the ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 457–473Google Scholar
  32. Laws, E. A., Bienfang, P. K., Zieman, D. A., Conquest, L. D. (1988). Phytoplankton population dynamics and the fate of production during the spring bloom in Auke Bay, Alaska. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33: 57–65Google Scholar
  33. Lewis, W. M. (1974). Primary production in the plankton community of a tropical lake. Ecol. Monogr. 44: 377–409Google Scholar
  34. Malone, T. C. (1971). The relative importance of nanoplankton and netplankton as primary producers in the California Current system. Fish. Bull. U.S. 69: 799–820Google Scholar
  35. McAllister, C. D., Shah, D., Strickland, J. D. H. (1964). Marine phytoplankton photosynthesis as a function of light intensity: a comparison of methods. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 21: 159–181Google Scholar
  36. McCarthy, J. J., Goldman, J. C. (1979). Nitrogenous nutrition of marine phytoplankton in nutrient-depleted waters. Science, N.Y. 203: 670–672Google Scholar
  37. McLaughlin, J. J. A., Kleppel, G. S., Brown, M. P., Ingram, R. J., Samuels, M. B. (1982). The importance of nutrients to phytoplankton production in New York Harbor. In: Meyer, G. F. (ed.) Ecological stress and the New York Bight: science and management. Estuarine Research Federation. Columbia, South Carolina, p. 469–479Google Scholar
  38. Munk, W. H., Riley, G. A. (1952). Absorption of nutrients by aquatic plants. J. mar. Res. 11: 215–240Google Scholar
  39. Nalewajko, C., Dunstall, T. G., Shear, H. (1976). Kinetics of extracellular release in axenic algae and in mixed algal-bacterial cultures: significance in estimation of total (gross) phytoplankton excretion rates. J. Phycol. 12: 1–5Google Scholar
  40. Oviatt, C. A., Keller, A. A., Sampou, P. A., Beatty, L. L. (1986a). Patterns of productivity during eutrophication: a mesocosm experiment. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 28: 69–80Google Scholar
  41. Oviatt, C. A., Rudnick, D. T., Keller, A. A., Sampou, P. A., Almquist, G. T. (1986 b). A comparison of system (O2 and CO2) and C-14 measurements of metabolism in estuarine mesocosms. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 28: 57–67Google Scholar
  42. Peinert, R., Saure, A., Stegman, P., Steinen, C., Haardt, H., Smetacek, V. (1982). Dynamics of primary production and sedimentation in a coastal ecosystem. Neth. J. Sea Res. 16: 276–289Google Scholar
  43. Peterson, B. J. (1978). Radiocarbon uptake: its relation to net particulate production. Limnol. Oceanogr. 23: 179–184Google Scholar
  44. Peterson, B. J. (1980). Aquatic primary productivity and the 14C-CO2 method: a history of the productivity problem. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 359–385Google Scholar
  45. Pilson, M. E. Q., Oviatt, C. A., Nixon, S. W. (1980). Annual nutrient cycles in a marine microcosm. In: Giesy, J. P. (ed.) Microcosms in Ecological Research. National Technical Information Service. Springfield, VA, p. 753–778Google Scholar
  46. Platt, T., Conover, R. J. (1971). Variability and its effect on the 24 h chlorophyll budget of a small marine basin. Marine Biology 10: 52–65Google Scholar
  47. Platt, T., Jassby, A. D. (1976). The relationship between photosynthesis and light for natural assemblages of coastal marine phytoplankton. J. Phycol. 12: 421–430Google Scholar
  48. Reynolds, C. S., Morison, H. R., Butterwick, C. (1982a). The sedimentary flux of phytoplankton in the south basin of Windermere. Limnol. Oceanogr. 27: 1162–1175Google Scholar
  49. Reynolds, C. S., Thompson, J. M., Ferguson, A. J., Wiseman, S. W. (1982b). Loss processes in the population dynamics of phytoplankton in closed limnetic systems. J. Plankton Res. 4: 561–600Google Scholar
  50. Riebesell, U. (1988). Sinking and sedimentation of a diatom winter/spring bloom, M. S. thesis,University of Rhode Island Kingston, RIGoogle Scholar
  51. Rudnick, D. T., Oviatt, C. A. (1986). Seasonal lags between organic carbon deposition and mineralization in marine sediments. J. mar. Res. 44: 815–837Google Scholar
  52. Sharp, J. H. (1974). Improved analysis for “particulate” carbon and nitrogen from seawater. Limnol. Oceanogr. 19: 984–989Google Scholar
  53. Smayda, T. J. (1969). Some measurements of the sinking rate of fecal pellets. Limnol. Oceanogr. 14: 621–625Google Scholar
  54. Smayda, T. J. (1973). The growth of Skeletonema costatum during a winter-spring bloom in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Norw. J. Bot. 20: 219–247Google Scholar
  55. Smetacek, V. (1980). Zooplankton standing stock, copepod fecal pellets and particulate detritus in Kiel Bight. Estuar. cstl mar. Sci. 11: 477–490Google Scholar
  56. Smetacek, V., Bodungen, B. von, Knoppers, B., Peinert, R., Pollehne, F., Stegmann, P., Zeitzschel, B. (1980). Seasonal stages characterizing the annual cycle of an inshore pelagic system. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons perm. int. Explor. Mer 183: 126–135Google Scholar
  57. Smetacek, V., Brockel, K. von, Zeitzschel, B., Zenk, W. (1978). Sedimentation of particulate matter during a phytoplankton spring bloom in relation to the hydrological regime. Marine Biology 47: 211–226Google Scholar
  58. Smith, R. E. H. (1982). The estimation of phytoplankton production and excretion by carbon-14. Marine Biology Lett. 3: 325–334Google Scholar
  59. Smith, S. L., Lane, P. V. Z. (1988). Grazing of the spring diatom bloom in the New York Bight by the calanoid copepods Calanus finmarchicus, Metridia lucens and Centropages typicus. Contin. Shelf Res. 8: 485–509Google Scholar
  60. Sournia, A., Birrien, J.-L., Douville, J.-L., Klein, B., Viollier, M. (1987). A daily study of the diatom spring bloom at Roscoff (France) in 1985. I. The spring bloom within the annual cycle. Estuar. cstl Shelf Sci. 25: 355–367Google Scholar
  61. Steemann Nielsen, E. (1952). The use of radioactive carbon (C14) for measuring organic production in the sea. J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 18: 117–140Google Scholar
  62. Strickland, J. D. H., Parsons, T. R. (1972). A practical handbook of seawater analysis, 2nd ed. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd Can.Google Scholar
  63. Takamura, N., Yasuno, M. (1988). Sedimentation of phytoplankton populations dominated by Microcystis in a shallow lake. J. Plankton Res. 10: 283–299Google Scholar
  64. Tilzer, M. M. (1984). Estimation of phytoplankton loss rates from daily photosynthetic rates and observed biomass change in Lake Constance. J. Plankton Res. 6: 309–324Google Scholar
  65. Trimbee, A. M., Harris, G. P. (1984). Phytoplankton population dynamics of a small reservoir: use of sedimentation traps to quantify the loss of diatoms and recruitment of summer bloomforming blue-green algae. J. Plankton Res. 6: 897–918Google Scholar
  66. Utermöhl, H. (1958). Zur Vervollkommnung der quantitativen Phytoplankton-Methodik. Mitt. int. Verein theor. angew. Limnol. 9: 1–38Google Scholar
  67. Vargo, G. A. (1976). The influence of grazing and nutrient excretion by zooplankton on the growth and production of the marine diatom, Skeletonema costatum (Greville) Cleve, in Narragansett Bay. Ph.D. thesis, University of Rhode Island Kingston, RIGoogle Scholar
  68. Verity, P. G. (1986). Grazing of phototrophic nanoplankton by microzooplankton in Narragansett Bay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 29: 105–115Google Scholar
  69. Welschmeyer, N. A., Lorenzen, C. J. (1985). Chlorophyll budgets: Zooplankton growth in a temperate fjord and the Central Pacific gyres. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30: 1–21Google Scholar
  70. Williams, R. B. (1964). Division rates of salt marsh diatoms in relation to salinity and cell size. Ecology 45: 877–880Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Keller
    • 1
  • U. Riebesell
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of OceanographyUniversity of Rhode IslandNarragansettUSA

Personalised recommendations