Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Cytokinesis in the developing wheat grain; Division with and without a phragmoplast

  • 59 Accesses

  • 37 Citations

Summary

Cell wall formation during the transition from free-nuclear to cellular endosperm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Heron) was investigated using correlated light and electron microscopy. Partitioning of the multinucleate syncytium that lines the inner periphery of the embryo sac is initiated 1–2 days after anthesis. Wall ingrowths, at first recognizable in sections as minute wall pegs, furrow inward from the edge of the embryo sac through the vacuolate cytoplasm which, to the inside, is clearly delimited by the central vacuole. Growth of the walls at this stage is independent of a phragmoplast and in this respect is reminiscent of the cleavage processes of lower plant cells. Intense fluorescence of the walls after staining with aniline blue suggests that callose may be a principal component. The growing walls branch and eventually meet on the side nearest the central vacuole. Cellularization of the peripheral layer of endosperm cytoplasm is thus complete about 2 days after anthesis. Between 2 and 3 days after anthesis, the peripheral layer of cells commences to divide both radially and tangentially and by 4 days the entire embryo sac is cellular. Cytokinesis during this phase entails the formation of a cell plate between sister nuclei. At the periphery of a forming cell plate, “vesicles” appear scattered amongst an array of phragmoplast microtubules. This mechanism of wall growth differs markedly from the initial infurrowing of the first-formed walls. The overall timing and the manner of cell wall deposition vary in a number of important respects from the model recently proposed by Mares et al. whose work was based largely on light microscopy (D.J. Mares; K. Norstog; A.B. Stone: Aust. J. Bot. 23, 311–326, 1975).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

CV:

central vacuole

D:

dictyosome

En:

endosperm

ER:

endoplasmic reticulum

II:

inner integument

m:

mitochondrion

MTs:

microtubules

N:

nucellus

NE:

nucellar epidermis

Nu:

nucleus

S:

starch

V:

vacuole

W:

embryo sac wall

References

  1. Bajer, A.: Fine structure studies on phragmoplast and cell plate formation. Chromosoma (Berl.) 24, 383–417 (1968)

  2. Eschrich, W., Currier, H.B.: Identification of callose by its diachrchrome and fluorochrome reactions. Stain Techn. 39, 303–307 (11964)

  3. Evers, A.D.: Development of the endosperm of wheat. Ann. Bot. 34, 547–555 (1970)

  4. Gordon, M.: The development of endosperm in cereals. Proc. roy. Soc. Victoria 34, 105–116 (1922)

  5. Hepler, P.K., Jackson, W.T.: Microtubules and early stages of cell-plate formation in the endosperm of Haemanthus katherinae Baker. J. Cell Biol. 38, 437–446 (1968)

  6. Hepler, P.K., Palevitz, B.A.: Microtubules and microfilaments. Ann. Rev. Pl. Physiol. 25, 309–362 (1974)

  7. Lane, B.P., Europa, D.L.: Differential staining of ultrathin sections of epon-embedded tissues for light microscopy. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 13, 579–582 (1965)

  8. Mares, D.J., Norstog, K., Stone, B.A.: Early stages in the development of wheat endosperm. I. The change from free nuclear to cellular endosperm. Aust. J. Bot. 23, 311–326 (1975)

  9. Mayor, H.D., Hampton, J.C., Rosario, B.: A simple method for removing the resin from epoxy-embedded tissue. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 9, 909–910 (1961)

  10. Morrison, I.N., Kuo, J., O'Brien, T.P.: Histochemistry and fine structure of developing wheat aleurone cells. Planta (Berl.) 123, 105–116 (1975)

  11. Newcomb, E.H.: Plant microtubules. Ann. Rev. Pl. Physiol. 20, 253–288 (1969)

  12. Newcomb, W.: The development of the embryo sac of sunflower Helianthus annuus L. after fertilization. Canad. J. Bot. 51, 879–890 (1973)

  13. Newcomb, W., Fowke, L.C.: The fine structure of the change from the free-nuclear to cellular condition in the endosperm of chickweed Stellaria media. Bot. Gaz. 123, 236–241 (1973)

  14. O'Brien, T.P., The cytology of cell-wall formation in some eukaryotic cells. Bot. Rev. 38, 87–118 (1972)

  15. Pickett-Heaps, J.D.: The evolution of the mitotic apparatus: an attempt at comparative ultrastructural cytology in dividing plant cells. Cytobios 3, 257–280 (1969)

  16. Pickett-Heaps, J.D.: Plant microtubules. In: Dynamic aspects of plant ultrastructure, p. 219–255, A.W. Robards, ed. London: McGraw-Hill 1974

  17. Spurr, A.R.: A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J Ultrastruct. Res. 26, 31–43 (1969)

  18. Venable, J.H., Coggeshall, R.: A simplified lead citrate stain for use in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 25, 407–408 (1965)

Download references

Author information

Additional information

This work was supported by grants from the Australian Research Grants Committee and the Reserve Bank of Australia (to T.P. O'B.) while one of us (I.N.M.) received financial assistance from the Australian Government through the Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Morrison, I.N., O'Brien, T.P. Cytokinesis in the developing wheat grain; Division with and without a phragmoplast. Planta 130, 57–67 (1976). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00390845

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cell Plate
  • Aniline Blue
  • Cell Wall Formation
  • Central Vacuole
  • Intense Fluorescence