Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effect of hormones on nucleolar growth and vacuolation in elongating cotton fibers


A rather precise combination of the three phytohormones, gibberellic acid, auxin, and abscisic acid, is necessary for the considerable growth of fiber nucleoli in Gossypium hirsutum L. for about 8 days after anthesis and for nucleolar “vacuolation” in the second half of that period. Nucleolar growth and vacuolation must occur in a precise sequence for the fiber to reach a good final length. Nucleolar vacuolation indicates simultaneous output and neosynthesis of nucleolar material.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



abscisic acid


2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


5% acetic acid glacial, 5% formaldehyde (35%), 90% ethanol (50%)


fiber length

Flx :

fiber length at day “x” post anthesis

GA3 :

gibberellic acid


indole-3-acetic acid


nonpollinated, grown in situ




size of the nucleolus


normal pollination, grown in situ


pollinated, grown in vitro

Vac F:

vacuolation frequency


  1. Aiyangar, G.S.: Origin and development of lint and fuzz in cotton. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 21, 293–312 (1951)

  2. Baert, T., De Langhe, E., Waterkeyn, L.: In vitro culture of cotton ovules: III. Influence of growth hormones upon fiber development. La Cellule 71 (1), 55–63 (1975)

  3. Beasley, C.A., Ting, I.P.: Effects of plant growth substances on in vitro fiber development from unfertilized cotton ovules. Amer. J. Bot. 61 (2), 188–194 (1974)

  4. Brachet, J.: Biochemical cytology. New York: Academic Press 1957

  5. Davis, L.A., Heinz, D.E., Addicott, P.T.: Gas-liquid chromatography of trimethosilyl derivates of absisic acid and other plant hormones. Plant Physiol. 43, 1389–1394 (1968)

  6. Debarsy, T., Deltour, R., Brouchart, R.: Study of nucleolar vacuolation and RNA synthesis in embryonic root cells of Zea mays. J. Cell. Sci. 19, 95–112 (1974)

  7. De Langhe, E.: Influence of the sympodial structure of the cotton plant on the activity of plant hormones in flowering and fruiting. Mededelingen Fak. Landb. 38, 1061–1067 (1973)

  8. Deltour, R., Brouchart, R.: Changements de l'ultrastructure des cellules radiculaires de Zea mays au début de la germination. Planta 97, 197–207 (1971)

  9. Fowke, L.C., Setterfield, G.: Cytological responses in Jerusalem artichoke tuber slices during aging and subsequent auxin treatment. Biochem. and Physiol. of Plant Growth Substances, Ottawa Canada Runge Press 1968

  10. Jensen, W.A.: Cotton embryogenesis: The zygote. Planta 79, 346–366 (1968)

  11. Johansen, D.A.: Plant Microtechnique. New York: Mc Graw-Hill 1940

  12. Johnson, J.M.: A study of nucleolar vacuoles in cultured tobacco cells using radio-autoradiography, actionomycin D, and electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 43, 197–206 (1969)

  13. Key, J.L., Shannon, J.C.: Emancement by auxin of RNA synthesis in excised soybean hypocotyl tissue. Plant Physiol. 39, 360–364 (1964)

  14. Kosmidou-Dimitropoulou, K.: Physiological identification of cotton fiber technological characteristics: Hormonal action in fiber-initiation and-development. Doctoral thesis Faculty of Agric. Sci. Ghent. Belgium (1976)

  15. Miller, C.O., Skoog, F.: Chemical control of bud formation in tobacco stem segments. Am. J. Bot. 40, 768–773 (1953)

  16. Ramsey, J.C., Berlin, J.D.: Ultrastructure of early stages of cotton fiber differentiation. Bot. Gaz. 137, 11–19 (1976)

  17. Rose, R.J., Setterfield, G., Fowke, L.C.: Activation of nucleoli in tuber slices and the function of nucleolar vacuoles. Exp. Cell Res. 71, 1–16 (1972)

  18. Schubert, A.M., Benedict, C.R., Berlin, J.D., Kohel, R.J.: Cotton fiber development — Kinetics of cell elongation and secondary wall thickening. Crop Sci. 13, 704–709 (1973)

  19. Trewayas, A.: Progress in Phytochem. 1, 113–160 (1968)

  20. Waterkeyn, L.: Evolution nucléaire et nucléolaire pendant la phase d'initiation, d'élongation et d'épaississement de la «fibre de coton» (submitted for publication in C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) (1978)

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

De Langhe, E., Kosmidou-Dimitropoulou, S. & Waterkeyn, L. Effect of hormones on nucleolar growth and vacuolation in elongating cotton fibers. Planta 140, 269–273 (1978).

Download citation

Key words

  • Abscisic acid
  • Auxin Cell elongation
  • Fibers
  • Gibberellin
  • Gossypium
  • Nucleolus