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Biochemical differentiation of plastids and other organelles in rye leaves with a high-temperature-induced deficiency of plastid ribosomes

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Summary

1. In developing rye (Secale cereale L.) leaves the formation of plastidic ribosomes was selectively prevented in light as well as in darkness, when the seedlings were grown at an elevated temperature of 32° instead of 22° where normal development ocurred. Plastid ribosome deficient parts of lightgrown leaves were chlorotic at 32°. — 2. At both temperatures the leaves contained under all conditions (light or dark, on H2O or nutrient solution) equal or very similar amounts of total amino nitrogen. In light, the contents of total protein and dry weight were lower at 32° than at 22°, especially when the plants were grown on nutrient solution. — 3. Mitochondrial marker enzymes had normal or even higher activities in 32°-grown leaves. Respiration rates were similar for segments of leaves grown on water in light either at 32° or at 22° but by 20–30% lower for 32°-grown plants when they had been raised in darkness or on nutrient solution. In contrast to 22°-grown tissue, respiration of 32°-grown leaf segments was rather insensitive to KCN. Comparative inhibitor studies indicated the presence of both the cyanide-sensitive and the cyanide-insensitive pathway of respiration in 32°-grown leaves. — 4. Leaf microbody marker enzymes were present in leaves grown at 32°. From chlorotic parts of 32°-light-grown leaves a typical microbody fraction was isolated on sucrose densitygradients. — 5. Leaves of seedlings grown at 32° contained only very low levels of ribulosediphosphate carboxylase activity and of fraction I protein. Photosynthetic 14CO2-fixation of such leaves was only a few per cent of that observed in normal leaves, and no photosynthetic oxygen evolution was observed in chlorotic leaf segments. However, ten other soluble enzymes which are exclusively or partially localized in chloroplasts reached high activities under all conditions at 32° (Table 4). — 6. From chlorotic parts of 32°-light-grown leaves as well as from etiolated 32°-grown leaves a fraction of intact plastids was isolated and purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation which contained several soluble chloroplast enzymes. From the results we conclude that cytoplasmic protein synthesis must contribute a functional chloroplast envelope including the mechanism for the recognition and uptake of chloroplast proteins which are synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes.

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Feierabend, J., Schrader-Reichhardt, U. Biochemical differentiation of plastids and other organelles in rye leaves with a high-temperature-induced deficiency of plastid ribosomes. Planta 129, 133–145 (1976). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00390020

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Keywords

  • Nutrient Solution
  • Leaf Segment
  • Amino Nitrogen
  • Chloroplast Envelope
  • Photosynthetic Oxygen Evolution