Marine Biology

, Volume 60, Issue 2–3, pp 137–146 | Cite as

Predation by the epipelagic heteropod mollusk Carinaria cristata forma japonica

  • R. R. Seapy
Article

Abstract

In surface waters off Southern California (USA), Carinaria cristata forma japonica van der Spoel, 1972 feeds on a variety of zooplankton, although thaliaceans, chaetognaths, and copepods predominate numerically in the diet. Feeding intensity is greatest on the most abundant of two species of thaliaceans, depending on which one dominates in the plankton at the time. Some cannibalism occurs, with the prey being about one half the size of the predator. Feeding intensity is greatest during the day, possibly because heteropods depend on vision to locate prey and because prey species are more available by day. Comparisons of the proportion of each prey species in the diet and in the plankton indicate preferential feeding on thaliaceans, chaetognaths, and mollusks; in contrast, crustaceans and especially the copepods are non-preferred prey. These preference patterns may reflect differences among prey species in the ability to escape capture. Predator and prey size are positively correlated for Doliolum denticulatum gonozoids and oozoids, Thalia democratica aggregates, and Sagitta spp. Smaller individuals of D. denticulatum gonozoids and Sagitta spp. are selectively preyed on, resulting in size refuges for larger individuals.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Berner, L. D.: Studies on the Thaliacea of the temperate north-east Pacific Ocean, 144 pp. Ph. D. thesis, University of California, San Diego 1957Google Scholar
  2. Berner, L. D. and J. L. Reid, Jr.: On the response to changing temperature of the temperature-limited plankter Doliolum denticulatum Quoy and Gaimard 1835. Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 205–215 (1961)Google Scholar
  3. Carefoot, T.: Pacific seashores. A guide to intertidal ecology, 208 pp. Seattle: University of Washington Press 1977Google Scholar
  4. Dales, R. P.: The distribution of some heteropod molluscs off the Pacific Coast of North America. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 122, 1007–1015 (1953)Google Scholar
  5. Dilly, P. N.: The structure of a photoreceptor organelle in the eye of Pterotrachea mutica. Z. Zellforsch. mikrosk. Anat. 99, 420–429 (1969)Google Scholar
  6. Fisheries Biology Branch: Comparison of biological characteristics of sardines and related species, a preliminary note. Background Paper, Subject Synopsis No. 1 (1959). (Copies available from: Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, I-00100 Rome)Google Scholar
  7. Friedl, W. A.: The relative sampling performance of 6- and 10-foot Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawls. Fish. Bull. US 69, 427–432 (1971)Google Scholar
  8. Gabe, M.: Contribution à l'étude histologie de l'appariel digestif des Pterotracheidae. Cellule 54, 363–396 (1952)Google Scholar
  9. Graham, A.: Molluscan diets. Proc. malac. Soc. Lond. 31, 144–159 (1955)Google Scholar
  10. Hamner, W. M., L. P. Madin, A. L. Alldredge, R. W. Gilmer and P. P. Hamner: Underwater observations of gelatinous zooplankton: sampling problems, feeding biology, and behavior. Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 907–917 (1975)Google Scholar
  11. Hardy, A.: The open sea. Its natural history: Part I. The world of plankton, 335 pp. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin 1958Google Scholar
  12. Heron, A. C.: Population ecology of a colonizing species: the pelagic tunicate Thalia democratica. 1. Individual growth rate and generation time. Oecologia 10, 269–293 (1972a)Google Scholar
  13. Heron, A. C.: Population ecology of a colonizing species: the pelagic tunicate Thalia democratica. 2. Population growth rate. Oecologia 10, 294–312 (1972b)Google Scholar
  14. Heron, A. C.: A specialized predator-prey relationship between the copepod Sappharina angusta and the pelagic tunicate Thalia democratica. J. mar. biol. Ass. U. K. 53, 429–435 (1973)Google Scholar
  15. Hickey, B. M.: The California Current system-hypotheses and facts. Prog. Oceanogr. 8, 191–279 (1979)Google Scholar
  16. Hirsch, G. C.: Die Ernährungsbiologie fleischfressender Gastropoden (Murex, Natica, Pterotrachea, Pleurobranchea, Tritonium). I. Teil. Makroskopischer Bau, Nährungsaufnahme, Verdauung, Sekretion. Zool. Jb. (Abt. Zool. Physiol. Tiere) 35 357–504 (1915)Google Scholar
  17. Horridge, G. A. and P. S. Boulton: Prey detection by Chaetognatha via a vibration sense. Proc. R. Soc. Edinb. (Sect. B.) 168, 413–419 (1967)Google Scholar
  18. Hyman, L. H.: The invertebrates. Vol. V. Smaller coelomate groups, 783 pp. New York: McGraw-Hill 1959Google Scholar
  19. Ivlev, Y. S.: Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes, 302 pp. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press 1961Google Scholar
  20. Jacobs, J.: Quantitative measurement of food selection. A modification of the forage ratio and Ivlev's electivity index. Oecologia 14, 413–417 (1974)Google Scholar
  21. McGinnis, D. R.: Observations on the zooplankton of the eastern Santa Barbara Channel from May, 1969 to March, 1970. In: Biological and oceanographic survey of the Santa Barbara Channel oilspill 1969–1970. Vol. I. Biology and bacteriology, pp 49–59. Ed. by D. Straughan, Los Angeles: Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California (1971)Google Scholar
  22. McGowan, J. A.: Distributional atlas of pelagic molluscs in the California Current region. Calif. coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Atlas 6, 1–218 (1967)Google Scholar
  23. McGowan, J. A.: Oceanic biogeography of the Pacific. In: The micropaleontology of oceans, pp 3–74. Ed. by B. M. Funnell and W. R. Riedel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1971Google Scholar
  24. Nagasawa, S. and R. Marumo: Further studies on the feeding habits of Sagitta nagae alvariño in Suruga Bay, central Japan. J. oceanogr. Soc. Japan 32, 209–218 (1976)Google Scholar
  25. Okutani, T.: Notes on the genus Carinaria (Heteropoda) from Japanese and adjacent waters. Publs Seto mar. biol. Lab. 9, 333–352 (1961)Google Scholar
  26. Seapy, R. R.: An anlysis of the distribution and feeding habits of the heteropod mollusk Carinaria japonica in waters off Southern California, 172 pp. Ph. D. thesis, University of Southern California 1970Google Scholar
  27. Seapy, R. R.: An analysis of the distribution and feeding habits mollusk Carinaria japonica in waters off Southern California. Mar. Biol. 24, 243–250 (1974)Google Scholar
  28. Silver, M. W.: The habitat of Salpa fusiformis (Chordata: Tunicata) in the California Current as defined by stomach content studies and the effect of salp swarms on the food supply of the plankton community, 135 pp. Ph. D. thesis, University of California, San Diego 1971Google Scholar
  29. Silver, M. W.: The habitat of Salpa fusiformis in the California Current as defined by indicator assemblages. Limnol. Oceanogr 20, 230–237 (1975)Google Scholar
  30. Tesch, J. J.: Heteropoda. Dana Rep. 34, 1–53 (1949)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. R. Seapy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological ScienceCalifornia State UniversityFullertonUSA

Personalised recommendations