Marine Biology

, Volume 52, Issue 4, pp 377–386 | Cite as

Larval distribution and reproductive ecology of Thysanoessa macrura (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) in the Scotia Sea

  • R. R. Makarov


In the Scotia Sea, the larvae of Thysanoessa macrura G.O. Sars, 1885 were scarce in spring (September 27 to October 6, 1971) and mainly present at the Calyptopis I stage, while in summer (December 17, 1974 to January 3, 1975) they were much more abundant and much further developed (up to Furcilia VI). The spawning season commences as early as September and, as indicated by the presence of numerous nauplii and metanauplii in summer, is rather long. T. macrura begins to spawn much earlier in West-Wind-Drift waters than in waters of the Weddell Sea. It starts to spawn simultaneously with Euphausia frigida and E. triacantha, but significantly earlier than E. superba. These timings of the breeding process are related to differential biogeographical characteristics of these species. Plankton collections made at depths of 500 or 1000 m have, for T. macrura, revealed a “developmental ascent” analogous to that of E. superba. Ontogenetical deep-water migrations are, consequently, characteristic not only for E. superba, but also for other Antarctic euphausiids (in particular E. frigida, but possibly not for inshore E. crystallorophias) and, as correctly postulated by several other investigators, for all oceanic euphausiid species.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Baker, A. de, C.: Distribution and life-history of Euphausia triacantha Holt and Tattersall. ‘Discovery’ Rep. 29, 309–339 (1959)Google Scholar
  2. Bargmann, H.E.: The development and life-history of adolescent and adult krill, Euphausia superba. ‘Discovery’ Rep. 23, 103–176 (1945)Google Scholar
  3. Beklemishev, K.V.: Biogeographical nature of some antarctic zooplankton species. [in Russ.] Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 120, 507–509 (1958)Google Scholar
  4. Bogdanov, M.A., S.G. Oradovsky, E.V. Solyankin and N.V. Chvatsky: On the frontal zone of the Scotia Sea. [in Russ.]. Okeanologija 9, 989–994 (1969)Google Scholar
  5. Brodsky, K.A.: Areas of mass Calanus species of the Southern Hemisphere. [in Russ.]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 143, 709–712 (1962)Google Scholar
  6. —: Distribution and some morphological features of the Antarctic species of the genus Calanus (Copepoda). [in Russ.]. In: Biological results of the Soviet Antarctic Expedition (1955–1958), Vol. 2. pp 189–251. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka 1964Google Scholar
  7. Brotskaja, V.A. and L.A. Zenkevich: Quantitative evaluation of the bottom fauna of the Barents Sea. [in Russ.]. Trudy vses. nauchno-issled. Inst. morsk. ryb. Khoz. Okeanogr. 4, 6–126 (1939)Google Scholar
  8. Deacon, G.E.R.: The hydrology of the Southern Ocean. ‘Discovery’ Rep. 15, 1–124 (1937)Google Scholar
  9. Einarsson, H.: Euphausiacea. I. Northern Atlantic species. Dana Rep. 27, 1–185 (1945)Google Scholar
  10. Everson, I.: Antarctic krill: a reappraisal of its distribution. Polar Rec. 18, 15–23 (1976)Google Scholar
  11. Foxton, P.: The distribution of the standing crop of zooplankton in the Southern Ocean. ‘Discovery’ Rep. 28, 191–236 (1956)Google Scholar
  12. Fraser, F.C.: On the development and distribution of the young stages of krill (Euphausia superba). ‘Discovery’ Rep. 14, 1–192 (1936)Google Scholar
  13. Gopalakrishnan, K.: Developmental and growth studies of the euphausiid Nematoscelis difficilis (Crustacea) based on rearing. Bull. Spripps Instn Oceanogr. 20, 1–87 (1973)Google Scholar
  14. Hansen, H.J.: Crustacea Schizopoda. Rep. Swed. Antarct. Exped. 1901–1903 (Copenhagen), 1–56 (1913)Google Scholar
  15. Hardy, A.C. and E.R. Gunther: The plankton of the South Georgia whaling grounds and adjacent waters, 1926–1927. ‘Discovery’ Rep. 11, 1–456 (1935)Google Scholar
  16. Hart, T.J.: Phytoplankton periodicity in Antarctic surface waters. ‘Discovery’ Rep. 21, 261–356 (1942)Google Scholar
  17. Heegaard, P.: Larval stages of Meganyctiphanes (Euphausiacea) and some general phylogenetic remarks. Meddr Kommn Danm. Fisk.-og Havunders. (ser. Plankton) 5, 1–27 (1948)Google Scholar
  18. John, D.D.: The southern species of the genus Euphausia. ‘Discovery’ Rep. 14, 193–324 (1936)Google Scholar
  19. Korringa, P.: Water temperature and breeding throughout the geographical range of Ostrea edulis. Année biol. 33, 1–17 (1957)Google Scholar
  20. Lebour, M.V.: The Euphausiidae in the neighbourhood of Plymouth and their importance as herring food. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 13, 402–431 (1924)Google Scholar
  21. Le Roux, A.: Observations sur le développement larvaire de Nyctiphanes couchii (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) ou laboratoire. Mar. Biol. 22, 159–166 (1973)Google Scholar
  22. — Observations sur le développement larvaire de Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) an laboratoire. Mar. Biol. 26, 45–56 (1974)Google Scholar
  23. Lomakina, N.B.: The euphausiid fauna of the Antarctic and Notal regions. [in Russ.]. In: Biological results of the Soviet Antarctic Expedition (1955–1958), Vol. 2. pp 254–334. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka 1964Google Scholar
  24. Mackintosh, N.A.: Life cycle of Antarctic krill in relation to ice and water conditions. ‘Discovery’ Rep. 36, 1–94 (1972)Google Scholar
  25. Makarov, R.R.: Some data on the composition of the population and peculiarities of reproduction of Euphausia superba Dana. [in Russ.]. Oceanologija 11, 90–98 (1971)Google Scholar
  26. —: Larvae of Euphausia superba Dana in plankton from the Sea of Scotia. [in Russ.]. Trudy vses. nauchno-issled. Inst. morsk. ryb. Khoz. Okeanogr. 99, 84–103 (1974)Google Scholar
  27. —: Vertical distribution of eggs and larvae in euphausiids of the North-Eastern coasts of the island of South Georgia. [in Russ.]. Oceanologija 15, 1101–1106 (1975)Google Scholar
  28. —: Larval distribution and some aspects of reproduction ecology of Euphausia frigida Hansen, 1911 (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) in the Southern part of the Scotia Sea. [in Russ.]. Oceanologija 17, 324–332 (1977)Google Scholar
  29. — and V.V. Maslennikov: Distribution and current drift of Euphausia superba Dana larvae in the Scotia Sea and adjacent waters. [in Russ.]. Biol. Morya, Vladivostok 3, 37–43 (1975)Google Scholar
  30. Marr, J.W.S.: The natural history and geography of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) ‘Discovery’ Rep. 32, 33–464 (1962)Google Scholar
  31. Maslennikov, V.V., S.S. Parfenovich and E.V. Solyankin: Investigations of surface currents in the Scotia Sea. [in Russ.]. Trudy vses. nauchno-issled. Inst. Morsk. ryb. Khoz. Okeanogr. 79, 41–49 (1971)Google Scholar
  32. Mauchline, J.: The development of the Euphausiacea (Crustacea), especially that of Meganyctiphanes norvegica (M. Sars). Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 132, 627–639 (1959)Google Scholar
  33. —: The development of the euphausiid, Thysanoessa raschii (M. Sars). Crustaceana 9, 31–40 (1965)Google Scholar
  34. — and L.R. Fisher: The biology of euphausiids. In: Advances in marine biology, Vol. 7. pp 1–454. Ed. by F.S. Russell and C.M. Yonge. London and New York: Academic Press 1969Google Scholar
  35. Mileikovsky, S.A.: Some problems on the reproductive ecology of marine bottom invertebrates with pelagic development. [in Russ.]. Trydy murmansk morsk. biol. Inst. 3 (7), 146–169 (1961)Google Scholar
  36. —: The relation between the breeding and the spawning of marine shallow-shelf bottom invertebrates and the water temperature. [in Russ.]. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 88, 113–148 (1970)Google Scholar
  37. Naumov, A.G.: Distribution of dominant species and biomass of zooplankton in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean [in Russ.], 30 pp. Ph.D. thesis, Moscow University, Moscow 1965Google Scholar
  38. —: Biogeographical nature of the dominant species of zooplankton in the Southern Ocean. [in Russ.]. Trudy vses. nauchno-issled. Inst. morsk. ryb. Khoz. Okeanogr. 84, 143–156 (1973)Google Scholar
  39. Nemoto, T.: Food of ballen whales with reference to whale movement. Scient. Rep. Whales Res. Inst., Tokyo 14, 149–290 (1959)Google Scholar
  40. —: Feeding of ballen whales and krill, and the value of krill as a marine resource in the Antarctic. In: Symposium on Antarctic Oceanography, Santiago, Chile, 1966, pp 240–253. Cambridge: Scott Polar Research Institute 1968Google Scholar
  41. — and K. Nasu: Thysanoessa macrura as a food of baleen whales in the Antarctic. Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst., Tokyo 13, 193–199 (1958)Google Scholar
  42. Pertzova, K.N.: Larvae of the Euphausiacea of the Antarctic. [in Russ.]. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 105, 147–170 (1976)Google Scholar
  43. Ponomareva, L.A.: Reproduction of euphausiids of the Sea of Japan and the development of their early larval stages. [in Russ.]. Zool. Zh. 38, 1649–1662 (1959)Google Scholar
  44. —: Euphausiids of the Antarctic [in Russ.], 49 pp. Kaliningrad: Atlanticheskij nauchnoissledovatelskij Institut morskogo rybnogo Khozaistva i Okeanographii 1966Google Scholar
  45. Rustad, D.: Euphausiacea, with notes on their biogeography and development. Scient. Results Norw. Antarct. Exped. 5, 1–83 (1930)Google Scholar
  46. —: On the Antarctic euphausiids from the Norwegian Expeditions. Scient. Results Norw. Antarct. Exped. 12, 1–53 (1934)Google Scholar
  47. Ruud, J.H.: On the biology of Southern Euphausiidae. Hvalråd. Skr. 2, 1–105 (1932)Google Scholar
  48. Solyankin, E.V.: Changeability of the frontal zone position of the Scotia sea. [in Russ.]. Mezhdunar. Rybolov. 11, 42–48 (1969)Google Scholar
  49. Tattersall, W.M.: Euphausiacea. Nat. Hist. Rep. Br. Antarct. Terra Nova Exped. (Zool.) 13, 1–36 (1924)Google Scholar
  50. Timonin, A.G.: Distribution of chaetognaths in the Southern Ocean. [in Russ.]. Oceanologija 8, 878–887 (1968)Google Scholar
  51. Vladimirskaja, E.V., R.R. Makarov, V.V. Maslennikov and O.A. Movchan: Some traits of phytoplankton distribution in the Southern part of the Scotia Sea in spring. [in Russ.]. Oceanologija 16, 1069–1075 (1976)Google Scholar
  52. voronina, N.M.: Some results of Southern Ocean zooplankton investigations. Oceanologija 6, 681–689 (1966)Google Scholar
  53. —: Seasonal cycles of the common antarctic copepod species. In: Antarctic ecology, Vol. 1. pp 162–172. Ed. by M.W. Holdgate. London and New York: Academic Press 1970Google Scholar
  54. —: Annual cycle of Antarctic plankton. [in Russ.]. In: Fundamentals of the biological productivity of the ocean and its exploitation, pp 64–71. Ed. by C.V. Beklemishev. Moscow: Nauka 1971Google Scholar
  55. —: The spatial structure of the interzonal copepod populations in the Southern Ocean. Mar. Biol. 15, 336–343 (1972)Google Scholar
  56. —: An attempt at a functional analysis of the distributional range of Euphausia superba. Mar. Biol. 24, 347–352 (1974)Google Scholar
  57. —: On the ecology and biogeography of plankton in the Southern Ocean. [in Russ.]. Trudy P.P. Shirshov Inst. Okeanol. 103, 60–87 (1975)Google Scholar
  58. Zelikman, E.A.: Materials on distribution and reproduction of euphausiids in Murman's inshore zone [in Russ.]. Trudy murmansk. biol. Sta. 4, 79–117 (1958)Google Scholar
  59. —: The morphology of early larval stages of mass euphausiid species. [in Russ.]. Trudy murmansk. morsk. biol. Inst. 3 (7), 23–35 (1961)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. R. Makarov
    • 1
  1. 1.All-Union Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and OceanographyMoscowUSSR

Personalised recommendations