Growth studies of Gymnodinium breve in nutrient enriched and unenriched medium showed that anionic surfactants have the most deleterious effects on initial response, growth rate, and maximum cell numbers as compared with cationic and non-ionics. Degradation rates were determined, and the surfactant with the most favorable rate (C12 alkyl-benzene sulfonate) was further tested. The growth constant, K e , and maximum cell number, N max , decreased with increasing amount of surfactant added to G. breve cultures (enriched sea-water media); a minimum was observed at 12.5 ppb. Above this concentration the values of K e and N max increased to approach control values. This profile was ascribed to the formation of surfactant micelles that are ineffective. The surfactant produced mortality of G. breve (90% mortality versus 12% in untreated samples) in natural red-tide samples, but other algae and zooplankton were undisturbed.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
APHA (American Public Health Association and Water Pollution Control Federation): Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater including bottom sediments and sludges, 11th ed. 260 pp. New York: APHA 1960
Brydon, G.A., D.F. Martin and W.K. Olander: Laboratory culturing of the Florida red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve. Envir. Letters 1, 235–294 (1971)
Capaldi, R.A.: A dynamic model of cell membranes. Scient. Am. 230, 27–33 (1974)
Doig, M.T., III and D.F. Martin: The response of Gymnodinium breve to municipal waste materials. Mar. Biol. 24, 223–228 (1974)
Fairing, J.D. and F.D. Short: Spectrophotometric determination of alkyl benzene sulfonate detergents in surface water and sewage. Analyt. Chem. 28, 1827–1834 (1956)
Goldberg, E.D.: Chemical fluxes through the marine environment, including air-sea and sediment-sea exchanges. In: Chemical oceanographic research: present status and future direction. Office of Naval Research ARC-190, 45–67 (1973)
Joint Industry/Government Task Force on Eutrophication: Provisional algal assay procedure, U.S. Department of the Interior 1969
Longwell, J. and W.D. Maniece: Determination of ionic detergents in sewage, sewage effluents and river waters. Analyst, Lond. 80, 167–171 (1955)
Maggi, P. et D. Cossa: Nocivité relative de cinq détergents anioniques en milieu marin. I. Toxicité aigüe a l'égard de quinze organismes. Revue Trav. Inst. Pêch. marit. 37 (3) 411–417 (1973). [Aquat. Sci. Fish. Abstr. 4(4), (1974)]
Martin, D.F.: Marine chemistry. Vol. 1. (2nd ed.) Analytical methods, 389 pp. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1972
—, M.T. Doig, III and C.B. Stackhouse: Biocontrol of the Florida Gymnodinium breve, through predator organisms. Envir. Letters 4, 297–301 (1973)
Sieburth, J. McN.: The influence of algal antibiosis on the ecology of marine microorganisms In: Advances in microbiology of the sea, Vol. 1. pp 63–94. Ed. by M.R. Droop and E.J. Ferguson Wood. London & New York: Academic Press 1968
Sprague, J.B. and W.G. Carson: Dispersants in conection with an oil spill at Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia. Tech. Rep. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 201, 1–30 (1970)
Steidinger, K.A.: Phytoplankton ecology: a conceptual review based on Eastern Gulf of Mexico Research. CRC Critical Rev. Microbiol. 3, 49–68 (1973)
Swisher, R.D.: Surfactant biodegradation, 468 pp. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. 1970
Waymen, C.: Biodegradation of synthetic detergents. In: Progress in industrial microbiology, Vol. 10. pp 219–271. Ed. by D.J.D. Hockenhull. Edinburgh & London: Churchill Livingstone 1971
Wildish, D.J.: Acute toxicity of polyoxyethylene esters and polyoxyethylene ethers to S. salar and G. oceanicus. Wat. Res. 6, 759–762 (1972)
Wilson, W.B. and A. Collier: The production of surface-active material by marine phytoplankton cultures. J. mar. Res. 30, 15–26 (1972)
Communicated by O. Kinne, Hamburg
About this article
Cite this article
Kutt, E.C., Martin, D.F. Effect of selected surfactants on the growth characteristics of Gymnodinium breve . Marine Biology 28, 253–259 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00388492
- Growth Rate
- Deleterious Effect
- Degradation Rate