Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Larval dispersal of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent bivalve from the Galápagos Rift

  • 339 Accesses

  • 102 Citations

Abstract

The prodissoconch morphology of an unclassified mytilid from a hydrothermal vent on the Galápagos Rift indicates the presence of a planktotrophic larval stage with longrange dispersal capabilities. Recorded abyssal currents are probably sufficient to transport such larvae hundreds of kilometers. It is suggested that one or more aspects of the unusual biological or physico-chemical conditions (such as high microbial densities, elevated water temperatures, and hydrogen sulfide concentrations) encountered at vents, provide a stimulus to larval settlement. Such a behavioral response, perhaps coupled with a “gregarious settling” response, would provide a means of concentrating relatively sedentary organisms in and around these restricted, geographically isolated regions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Literature Cited

  1. Allen, J. A.: Evolution of the deep-sea protobranch bivalves. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. (Ser. B) 284, 387–401 (1978)

  2. Allen, J. A. and H. L. Sanders: Studies on deep-sea Protobranchia (Bivalvia): the families Siliculidae and Lametilidae. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv. 145, 263–310 (1973)

  3. Arnaud, P. M.: Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6, 465–656 (1974)

  4. Bayne, B. L.: Growth and the delay of metamorphosis of the larvae of Mytilus edulis (L.). Ophelia 2, 1–47 (1965)

  5. Bayne, B. L.: The gregarious behavior of the larvae of Ostrea edulis L. at settlement. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 49, 327–335 (1969)

  6. Bayne, B. L.: Some morphological changes that occur at the metamorphosis of the larvae of Mytilus edulis. Proc. 4th Eur. mar. Biol. Symp. 1971. 259–280 (1971) (Ed. by D. J. Crisp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

  7. Bayne, B. L.: The biology of mussel larvae. In: Marine mussels: their ecology and physiology, pp 81–120. Ed. by B. L. Bayne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1976

  8. Bernard, F.: Recherches ontogeniques et morphologiques sur la coquille des lamellibranches. I. Taxodontes et anisomyaires. Annls Sci. nat. (Sér. Zool.) 8, 1–208 (1898)

  9. Bouchet, P.: Mise en évidence de stades larvaires planctoniques chez des gastéropodes prosobranches de étages bathyal et abyssal. Bull. Mus. Hist. nat., Paris (Zool.) 277, 947–972 (1976)

  10. Carriker, M. R.: Ecological observations on the distribution of oyster larvae in New Jersey estuaries. Ecol. Monogr. 21, 19–38 (1951)

  11. Carriker, M. R.: Interrelation of functional morphology, behavior, and autecology in early stages of the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria. J. Elisha Mitchell Scient. Soc. 77, 168–241 (1961)

  12. Carriker, M. R. and R. E. Palmer: Ultrastructural morphogenesis of prodissoconch and early dissoconch valves of the oyster Crassostrea virginica. Proc natn. Shellfish. Ass. 69, 103–128 (1979)

  13. Chanley, P. E.: Larval development of the hooked mussel, Brachidontes recurvus Rafinesque (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) including a literature review of larval characteristics of the Mytilidae. Proc. natn. Shellfish. Ass. 60, 86–94 (1970)

  14. Chanley, P. E. and J. D. Andrews: Aids for identification of bivalve larvae of Virginia. Malacologia 11, 45–119 (1971)

  15. Chia, F. S.: Classification and adaptive significance of developmental patterns in marine invertebrates. Thalassia jugosl. 10, 121–130 (1974)

  16. Cole, H. A. and E. W. Knight-Jones: The setting behavior of larvae of the European oyster, Ostrea edulis L., and its influence on methods of cultivation and spat collection. Fishery Invest., Lond. (Ser. II) 17(3), 1–39 (1949)

  17. Corliss, J. B. and R. D. Ballard. Oases of life in the cold abyss. Natn. geogr. Mag. 152, 441–453 (1977)

  18. Corliss, J. B., J. Dymond, L. I. Gordon, J. M. Edmond, R. P. von Herzen, R. D. Ballard K. Green, D. Williams, A. Bainbridge, K. Crane and T. H. van Andel: Submarine thermal springs on the Galápagos Rift. Science, N.Y. 203, 1073–1083 (1979)

  19. Crisp, D. J.: Factors influencing the settlement of marine invertebrate larvae. In: Chemoreception in marine organisms, pp 177–265. Ed. by. P. T. Grant and A. M. Mackie, New York: Academic Press 1974

  20. Crisp, D. J. and J. S. Ryland: Influence of filming and of surface texture on the settlement of marine organisms. Nature, Lond. 185, p. 119 (1960)

  21. De Schweinitz, E. H. and R. A. Lutz: Larval development of the northern horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus, (L.), including a comparison with the larvae of Mytilus edulis L. as an aid in planktonic identification. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 150, 348–360 (1976)

  22. Giesel, J. T.: Reproductive strategies as adaptations to life in temporally heterogeneous environments. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7, 57–79 (1976)

  23. Grassle, J. F.: Slow recolonisation of deep-sea sediment. Nature, Lond. 265, 618–619 (1977)

  24. Grassle, J. F., C. J. Berg, J. J. Childress., J. P. Grassle, R. R. Hessler, H. J. Jannasch, D. M. Karl, R. A. Lutz, T. J. Mickel, D. C. Rhoads, H. L. Sanders, K. L. Smith, G. N. Somero, R. D. Turner, J. H. Tuttle, P. J. Walsh and A. J. Williams: Galápagos '79: initial findings of a deep-sea biological quest. Oceanus 22 (2), 2–10 (1979)

  25. Grassle, J. F. and H. L. Sanders: Life histories and the role of disturbance. Deep-Sea Res. 20, 643–649 (1973)

  26. Gray, J. S.: Animal-sediment relationships. Oceanogr. mar. Biol. A. Rev. 12, 223–261 (1974)

  27. Gunter, G.: Temperature. Mem. geol. Soc. Am. 67, 159–184 (1957)

  28. Hidu, H.: Gregarious setting in the American oyster, Crassostrae virginica Gmelin. Chesapeake Sci. 10, 85–92 (1969)

  29. Hidu, H., W. G. Valleau and F. P. Veitch: Gregarious setting in European and American oysters — response to surface chemistry vs. waterborne pheromones. Proc. natn. Shellfish. Ass. 68, 11–16 (1978)

  30. Jablonski, D. and R. A. Lutz: Interpretation of larval shell morphology of fossil mollusks. A. Mtg geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. 11, p. 86 (1979)

  31. Jablonski, D. and R. A. Lutz: Molluscan larval shell morphology: ecological and paleontological applications. In: Skeletal growth of aquatic organisms, Ed. by D. C. Rhoads and R. A. Lutz. New York: Plenum Press (In press) 1980

  32. Jannasch, H. W., K. Eimhjellen, C. O. Wirsen and A. Farmanfarmaian: Microbial degradation of organic matter in the deep sea. Science, N.Y. 171, 672–675 (1971)

  33. Kiseleva, G. A.: Factors stimulating larval metamorphosis of the lamellibranch, Brachyodontes lineatus (Gmelin). Zool Zh. 45, 1571–1573 (1966)

  34. Knudsen, J.: The systematics, and biology of, abyssal and hadal Bivalvia. Galathaea Rep. 11, 1–241 (1970)

  35. LaBarbera, M.: Larval and post-larval development of five species of Miocene bivalves (Mollusca). J. Paleont. 48, 256–277 (1974)

  36. Lonsdale, P.: Clustering of suspension-feeding macrobenthos near abyssal hydrothermal vents at oceanic spreading centers. Deep-Sea Res. 24, 857–863 (1977)

  37. Loosanoff, V. L., H. C. Davis and P. E. Chanley: Dimensions and shapes of larvae of some marine bivalve mollusks. Malacologia 4, 351–435 (1966)

  38. Lutz, R. A. and H. Hidu: Hinge morphogenesis in the shells of larval and early post-larval mussels (Mytilus edulis L. and Modiolus modiolus (L.)). J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 59, 111–121 (1979)

  39. Lutz, R. A., H. Hidu and K. G. Drobeck: Acute temperature increase as a stimulus to setting in the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Proc. natn. Shellfish. Ass. 60, 68–71 (1970)

  40. Lutz, R. A. and D. Jablonski: Larval bivalve shell morphometry: a new paleoclimatic tool? Science, N.Y. 202, 51–53 (1978)

  41. McCall, P. L.: Community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound. J. mar. Res. 35, 221–266 (1977)

  42. Meadows, P. S. and J. I. Campbell: Habitat selection by aquatic invertebrates. In: Advances in marine biology, pp 271–382. Ed. by F. S. Russell and M. Yonge. London: Academic Press (1972)

  43. Menge, B. A.: Effect of wave action and competition on brooding and reproductive effort in the seastar, Leptasterias, hexactis. Ecology 55, 84–93 (1974)

  44. Menge, B. A.: Brood or broadcast? The adaptive significance of different reproductive strategies in the two intertidal sea stars Leptasterias hexactis and Pisaster ochraceus. Mar. Biol. 31, 87–100 (1975)

  45. Menzies, R. J. and R. Y. George: Temperature effects on behavior and survival of marine invertebrates exposed to variations in hydrostatic pressure. Mar. Biol. 13, 155–159 (1972)

  46. Mileikovsky, S. A.: Types of larval development in marine bottom invertebrates, their distribution and ecological significance: a re-evaluation. Mar. Biol. 10, 193–213 (1971)

  47. Mileikovsky, S. A.: Types of larval development in marine bottom invertebrates: an integrated ecological scheme. Thalassia jugosl. 10, 171–179 (1974)

  48. Ockelmann, K. W.: Development types in marine bivalves and their distribution along the Atlantic coast of Europe. Proc. 1st Eur. malac. Congr. 1962 25–35 (1965). (Ed. by. L. R. Cox and J. F. Peake. London: Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland & Malacological Society of London).

  49. Pearse, J. S.: Slow developing demersal embryos and larvae of antarctic sea star Odontaster validus. Mar. Biol. 3, 110–116 (1969)

  50. Rau, G. H. and J. I. Hedges: Carbon-13 depletion in a hydrothermal vent mussel: suggestion of a chemosynthetic food source. Science, N.Y. 203, 648–649 (1979)

  51. Rees, C. B.: The identification and classification of lamellibranch larvae. Hull Bull. mar. Ecol. 3, 73–104 (1950)

  52. Sanders, H. L. and J. A. Allen: Studies on deep-sea Protobranchia (Bivalvia); prologue and Pristiglomidae. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv. 145, 237–262 (1973)

  53. Sanders, H. L. and J. A. Allen: Studies on the deep-sea Protobranchia: the family Tindariidae and the genus Pseudotindaria. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv. 148, 23–59 (1977)

  54. Sanders, H. L. and R. R. Hessler Ecology of the deep-sea benthos. Science, N.Y. 163, 1419–1424 (1969)

  55. Scheltema, R. S.: Metamorphosis of the veliger larvae of Nassarius obsoletus (Gastropoda) in response to bottom sediment. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 120, 92–109 (1961)

  56. Scheltema, R. S.: Larval dispersal as a means of genetic exchange between geographically separated populations of shallowwater benthic marine gastropods. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 140, 284–322 (1971)

  57. Scheltema, R. S.: Reproduction and dispersal of bottom dwelling deep-sea invertebrates: a speculative summary. In: Barobiology and the experimental biology of the deep sea, pp 58–66. Ed. by R. W. Brauer. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina 1972

  58. Scheltema R. S.: Biological interactions determining larval settlement of marine invertebrates. Thalassia jugosl.. 10, 263–296 (1974)

  59. Scheltema, R. S.: Dispersal of marine invertebrate organisms: paleobiogeographic and biostratigraphic implications. In: Concepts and methods of biostratigraphy, pp 73–108. Ed. by E. G. Kauffman and J. E. Hazel. Strondsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross 1977

  60. Scheltema, R. S.: On the relationship between, dispersal of pelagic veliger larvae and the evolution of marine prosobranch gastropods. In: Marine organisms: genetics, ecology and evolution, pp 303–322. Ed. by. B. Battaglia, and J. A. Beardmore. New York: Plenum Press 1978

  61. Scheltema, R. S.: Mode of reproduction and inferred dispersal of prosobranch gastropods in the geologic past: consequences for biogeography and species evolution. A. Mtg geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. 11, p. 126 (1979)

  62. Sellmer, G. P.: Functional morphology and ecological life history of the gem clam, Gemma gemma (Eulamellibranchia Veneridae). Malacologia 5, 137–223 (1967)

  63. Simpson, R. D.: The reproduction of some littoral molluscs from Macquarie Island (sub-Antarctic). Mar. Biol. 44, 125–142 (1977)

  64. Smith, K. L., Jr. and J. M. Teal: Deep-sea benthic community respiration: an in situ study at 1850 meters. Science, N.Y. 179, 282–283 (1973)

  65. Thiel, H.: The size structure of the deep-sea benthos Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 60, 575–606 (1975)

  66. Thorson, G.: Reproductive and larval ecology of marine bottom invertebrates. Biol. Rev. 25, 1–45 (1950)

  67. Turekian, K. K., J. K. Cochran and Y. Nozaki: Growth rate of a clam from the Galápagos Rise hot spring field using natural radionuclide ratios. Nature, Lond. 280, 385–387 (1979)

  68. Turner, R. D.: Wood-boring bivalves, opportunistic species in the deep sea. Science N.Y. 180, 1377–1379 (1973)

  69. Turner, R. D.: Wood, mollusks and deep-sea food chains. Bull. Am. malac. Un. Inc. 1976, 13–17 (1977)

  70. Vermeij, G. J.: Biogeography and adaptation: patterns of marine life, 332 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press 1978

  71. Waller, T. R.: Formation of a posterodorsal notch in larval oyster shells and the prodissoconch-I/II, boundary in the Bivalvia. Bull. Am. malac. Un. Inc. 1978, 55–56 (1979)

  72. Weiss, R. F., P. Lonsdale, J. E. Lupton, A. E. Bainbridge and H. Craig: Hydrothermal plumes in the Galápagos Rift. Nature, Lond. 267, 600–603 (1978)

  73. Werner, B.: Über die Entwicklung und Artunterscheidung von Muschellarven des Nordseeplanktons, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Schalenentwicklung. Zool. Jb. (Abt. Anat. Ont. Tiere) 66, 1–54 (1939)

Download references

Author information

Additional information

Communicated by I. Morris, West Boothbay Harbor

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lutz, R.A., Jablonski, D., Rhoads, D.C. et al. Larval dispersal of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent bivalve from the Galápagos Rift. Mar. Biol. 57, 127–133 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00387378

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sulfide
  • Water Temperature
  • Bivalve
  • Longrange
  • Behavioral Response