Phenolic synthesis and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in suspension cultures of Acer pseudoplatanus L.
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Phenolic metabolism is influenced by the levels of sucrose, nitrogen and 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the growth medium. Chromatographic evidence suggests that the principle products are polymers of leucocyanin, (-) epicatechin and (+) catechin, constituting condensed tannins. Comparison of ethanolic cell extracts with extracts from plant organs shows that although these compounds are present in parts of the plant they are not the major phenolics.
Cells maintained in a modified Heller's medium containing 9.0×10−7 M 2,4-D produce increased levels of tannins from mid passage (day 12) onwards. The presence of 2,4-D at 9.0×10−6 M supresses this response and increased initial sucrose levels cause the amount of tannins to be greater. At the period when tannin levels increase the standard medium is exhaused of its nitrogen sources, urea and nitrate. Increased initial nitrogen levels delay the beginning of increased tannin production and the addition of urea or 2,4-D to cultures already containing high levels of tannins causes the tannin content per gram fresh weight and per culture to decline. These results indicate an antagonism between tannin synthesis and nitrogen metabolism. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase EC 188.8.131.52. (PAL) estimated by a spectrophotometric method in acetone powders derived from Acer cells increases three to four fold at the onset of increased tannin synthesis and then declines sharply. The phase of high PAL activity correlates with the exhausion of the medium nitrogen sources.
KeywordsTannin Catechin Epicatechin Condensed Tannin Acetone Powder
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