Biological Cybernetics

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 1–4 | Cite as

Frequency limitations of the two-point central difference differentiation algorithm

  • A. Terry Bahill
  • Jeffrey S. Kallman
  • Jon E. Lieberman


A two-point central difference algorithm is often used to calculate the derivative of a function. This estimate is only valid over a limited frequency range. Therefore, the algorithm can be modeled as an ideal differentiator in series with a low-pass filter. The filter cutoff frequency is a function of the time between the points. We discuss the accuracy and limitations of using this algorithm on human saccadic eye movement data. To calculate the velocity of saccadic eye movements the algorithm should have a cutoff frequency of 74 Hz or above.


Cutoff Frequency Central Difference Movement Data Difference Differentiation Frequency Limitation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Terry Bahill
    • 1
  • Jeffrey S. Kallman
    • 1
  • Jon E. Lieberman
    • 1
  1. 1.Biomedical Engineering Program, Department of Electrical EngineeringCarnegie-Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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