Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 61, Issue 2–3, pp 95–105 | Cite as

Diel periodicity of photosynthesis in marine phytoplankton

  • L. W. HardingJr.
  • B. W. Meeson
  • B. B. Prézelin
  • B. M. Sweeney
Article

Abstract

Short-term changes in photosynthesis were documented for 17 of 24 marine phytoplankton species, representing a range of taxonomic groups. Periodicity in phytoplankton photosynthesis on light-dark cycles (diel periodicity) was widespread but not universal for the species studied. The centric diatoms Lauderia borealis, Ditylum brightwellii, Stephanopyxis turris, Coscinodiscus rex, Chaetoceros gracile, and Biddulphia mobiliensis had strong diel periodicity in photosynthetic capacity (Pmax). Amplitudes of the daily variations ranged from 2.9 to >50, with maxima in the morning or near midday, and with minima during the dark period, and these variations were not dependent on changes in cell pigmentation. There was some evidence for sustained photosynthetic periodicity in constant conditions in several diatoms, and an endogenous rhythm may have been present. The photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) relationship was time-dependent for representative marine diatoms, with both the initial slope (α) and the asymptote (Pmax) of P-I curves exhibiting significant synchronous diel oscillations. Moreover, detailed studies of the amplitude and timing of photosynthetic periodicity for the diatoms L. borealis and D. brightwellii demonstrated large temporal variations in photosynthesis with morning maxima. These P-I oscillations are discussed with reference to models of primary production which use the relationship between photosynthesis and light as a component of predictive equations for phytoplankton growth in the sea.

Keywords

Phytoplankton Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Capacity Phytoplankton Growth Phytoplankton Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Bannister, T. T.: Production equations in terms of chlorophyll concentration, quantum yield, and upper limit to production. Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 4–12 (1974)Google Scholar
  2. Culberson, C., R. M. Pytkowicz and J. E. Hawley: Seawater alkalinity determination by the pH method. J. mar. Res. 28, 15–21 (1970)Google Scholar
  3. Doty, M. S.: Phytoplankton photosynthesis periodicity as a function of latitude. J. mar. biol. Ass. India 1, 66–68 (1959)Google Scholar
  4. Doty, M. S. and M. Oguri: Evidence for a photosynthetic daily periodicity. Limnol. Oceanogr. 2, 37–40 (1957)Google Scholar
  5. Eppley, R. W. and J. L. Coatsworth: Culture of the marine phytoplankter, Dunaliella tertiolecta, with light/dark cycles. Arch. Mikrobiol. 55, 66–80 (1966)Google Scholar
  6. Eppley, R. W., R. W. Holmes and E. Paasche: Periodicity in cell division and physiological behavior of Ditylum brightwellii, a marine plankton diatom, during growth in light-dark cycles. Arch. Mikrobiol. 56, 305–323 (1967)Google Scholar
  7. Fee, E. J.: A numerical model for the estimation of photosynthetic production, integrated over time and depth, in natural waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 14, 906–911 (1969)Google Scholar
  8. Fee, E. J.: The importance of diurnal variation of photosynthesis vs. light curves to estimates of integral primary production. Verh. int. Verein. theor. angew. Limnol. 19, 39–46 (1975)Google Scholar
  9. Gargas, E., I. Hare, P. Martens and L. Edler: Diel changes in phytoplankton photosynthetic efficiency in brackish waters. Mar. Biol. 52, 113–122 (1979)Google Scholar
  10. Govindjee, D. Wong, B. B. Prézelin and B. M. Sweeney: Chlorophyll a fluorescence of Gonyaulax polyedra grown on a lightdark cycle and after transfer to constant light. Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 405–411 (1979)Google Scholar
  11. Guillard, R. R. L. and J. H. Ryther: Studies of marine planktonic diatoms. I. Cyclotella nana Hustedt and Detonula confervacea (Cleve) Gran. Can. J. Microbiol. 8, 229–239 (1962)Google Scholar
  12. Harding, L. W., Jr., B. M. Sweeney and B. B. Prézelin: Marine phytoplankton periodicity: diel variations in photosynthetic capacity and the photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) relationship. A. Mtg Am. Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr. Abstr. p. 18 (1980)Google Scholar
  13. Harding, L. W., Jr., B. M. Sweeney, B. B. Prézelin and J. L. Cox: Diel oscillations in the photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) relationship of a planktonic marine diatom. (In preparation)Google Scholar
  14. Harris, G. P.: Diel and annual cycles of net plankton photosynthesis in Lake Ontario. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 30, 1779–1787 (1973)Google Scholar
  15. Hastings, J. W., L. Astrachan and B. M. Sweeney: A persistent daily rhythm in photosynthesis. J. cell. Physiol. 45, 69–76 (1961)Google Scholar
  16. Holmes, R. W. and F. T. Haxo: Diurnal variations in the photosynthesis of natural phytoplankton populations in artificial light. Spec. scient. Rep. U.S. Fish. Wildl. Serv. (Fish.) 279, 73–76 (1958)Google Scholar
  17. Honjo, T. and T. Hanaoka: Diurnal fluctuations of photosynthetic rate and pigment contents in marine phytoplankton. J. oceanogr. Soc. Japan 25, 182–190 (1969)Google Scholar
  18. Humphrey, G. F.: Photosynthetic characteristics of algae grown under constant illumination and light-dark regimes. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 40, 63–70 (1979)Google Scholar
  19. Jassby, A. D. and T. Platt: Mathematical formulation of the relationship between photosynthesis and light for phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 21, 540–547 (1976)Google Scholar
  20. Jeffrey, S. W.: New spectrophotometric equations for determining chlorophylls a, b, c 1, and c 2 in phytoplankton, and higher plants. Rep. mar. Biochem. Unit C.S.I.R.O. 1974, 6–8 (1974)Google Scholar
  21. Jørgensen, E. G.: Photosynthetic activity during the life cycle of synchronous Skeletonema cells. Physiologia Pl. 19, 789–799 (1966)Google Scholar
  22. Laval-Martin, D. L., D. J. Shuch and L. N. Edmunds, Jr.: Cell cycle-related and endogenously controlled circadian photosynthetic rhythms in Euglena. Pl. Physiol., Lancaster 63, 495–502 (1979)Google Scholar
  23. Lonergan, T. A. and M. L. Sargent: Regulation of the photosynthesis rhythm in Euglena gracilis, II. Involvement of electron flow through both photosystems. Pl. Physiol., Lancaster 64, 99–103 (1979)Google Scholar
  24. Lorenzen, C. J.: Diurnal variation in photosynthetic activity of natural phytoplankton populations. Limnol. Oceanogr. 8, 56–62 (1963)Google Scholar
  25. MacCaull, W. A. and T. Platt: Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of coastal marine phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 723–731 (1977)Google Scholar
  26. McAllister, C. D.: Measurements of diurnal variation in productivity at ocean station “P”. Limnol. Oceanogr. 8, 289–292 (1963)Google Scholar
  27. Malone, T. C.: Diurnal rhythms in netplankton and nannoplankton assimilation ratios. Mar. Biol. 10, 285–289 (1971)Google Scholar
  28. Newhouse, J., M. S. Doty and R. T. Tsuda: Some diurnal features of a neritic surface plankton population. Limnol. Oceanogr. 12, 207–212 (1967)Google Scholar
  29. Palmer, J. D., L. Livingston and F. D. Zusy: A persistent diurnal rhythm in photosynthetic capacity. Nature, Lond. 203, 1087–1088 (1964)Google Scholar
  30. Platt, T., K. L. Denman and A. D. Jassby: Modelling the productivity of phytoplankton. In: The sea: ideas and observations on progress in the study of the seas, pp. 807–856. Vol. VI. Ed. by E. D. Goldberg. New York, John Wiley 1977Google Scholar
  31. Platt, T., C. L. Gallegos and W. G. Harrison: Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton. J. mar. Res. (In press)Google Scholar
  32. Prézelin, B. B. and A. C. Ley: Photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence rhythms of marine phytoplankton. Mar. Biol. 55, 295–307 (1980)Google Scholar
  33. Prézelin B. B., B. W. Meeson and B. M. Sweeney: Characterization of photosynthetic rhythms in marine dinoflagellates. I. Pigmentation, photosynthetic capacity and respiration. Pl. Physiol., Lancaster 60, 384–387 (1977)Google Scholar
  34. Prézelin, B. B. and B. M. Sweeney: Characterization of photosynthetic rhythms in marine dinoflagellates. II. Photosynthesis-irradiance curves and in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence. Pl. Physiol., Lancaster 60, 388–392 (1977)Google Scholar
  35. Shimada, B. M.: Diurnal fluctuations in photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll a content of phytoplankton from Eastern Pacific waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 3, 336–339 (1958)Google Scholar
  36. Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran: Statistical methods, 593 pp. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press 1967Google Scholar
  37. Sokal, R. R. and J. F. Rohlf: Biometry. The principles and practice of statistics in biological research, 776 pp. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman 1969Google Scholar
  38. Sournia, A.: Circadian periodicities in natural populations of marine phytoplankton. Adv. mar. Biol. 12, 325–389 (1974)Google Scholar
  39. Steele, J. H.: Environmental control of photosynthesis in the sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 7, 137–150 (1962)Google Scholar
  40. Strickland, J. D. H. and T. R. Parsons: A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 167, 1–311 (1968)Google Scholar
  41. Sweeney, B. M. and J. W. Hastings: Characteristics of the diurnal rhythm of luminescence in Gonyaulax polyedra. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 49, 115–128 (1957)Google Scholar
  42. Sweeney, B. M. and J. W. Hastings: Rhythmic cell division in populations of Gonyaulax polyedra. J. Protozool. 5, 217–221 (1958)Google Scholar
  43. Sweeney, B. M., B. B. Prézelin, D. Wong and Govindjee: In vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence transients and the circadian rhythm of photosynthesis in Gonyaulax polyedra. Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 309–311 (1979)Google Scholar
  44. Taguchi, S.: Short-term variability of photosynthesis in natural marine phytoplankton populations. Mar. Biol. 37, 197–207 (1976)Google Scholar
  45. Terborgh, J. and G. C. McLeod: The photosynthetic rhythm in Acetabularia crenulata. I. Continuous measurements of oxygen exchange in alternating light-dark regimes and in constant light at different intensities. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 133, 659–669 (1967)Google Scholar
  46. Vollenweider, R. A.: Calculation models of photosynthesisdepth curves and some implications regarding day rate estimates in primary production measurements. In: Primary productivity in aquatic environments, pp 427–457. Ed. by C. R. Goldman. Berkeley: University of California Press 1965. [Memorie Ist ital. Idrobiol. 18, (Suppl.)]Google Scholar
  47. Walther, W. G. and L. N. Edmunds, Jr.: Studies on the control of the rhythm in photosynthetic capacity in synchronized cultures of Euglena gracilis. Pl. Physiol., Lancaster 51, 250–258 (1973)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. W. HardingJr.
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. W. Meeson
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. B. Prézelin
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. M. Sweeney
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Oceanic Biology Group, Marine Science InstituteUniversity of California at Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of California at Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations