The complex problem of refraction in collisionally pumped x-ray lasers is examined through a three-dimensional ray-tracing code, used as a post-processor to a 1 1/2-dimensional hydro/atomic code, to generate experimentally observable beam characteristics such as divergence and output intensity. A detailed description of the model is presented. Results from the model are compared with a series of experiments carried out at Rutherford Appleton Laboratories (RAL), where germanium slab targets of lengths 0.9–2.2 cm were irradiated. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.
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Plowes, J.A., Pert, G.J., Healy, S.B. et al. Beam modelling for x-ray lasers. Opt Quant Electron 28, 219–228 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00385854
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