, Volume 125, Issue 3, pp 243–259

Simultaneous requirement of carbon dioxide and abscisic acid for stomatal closing in Xanthium strumarium L.

  • Klaus Raschke

DOI: 10.1007/BF00385601

Cite this article as:
Raschke, K. Planta (1975) 125: 243. doi:10.1007/BF00385601


Open stomata of detached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. closed only when carbon dioxide and abscisic acid (ABA) were presented simultaneously. Three parameters of stomatal closing were determined after additions of ABA to the irrigation water of detached leaves, while the leaves were exposed to various CO2 concentrations ([CO2]s) in the air; a) the delay between addition of ABA and a reduction of stomatal conductance by 5%, b) the velocity of stomatal closing, and c) the new conductance. Changes in all three parameters showed that stomatal responses to ABA were enhanced by CO2; this effect followed saturation kinetics. Half saturation occurred at an estimated [CO2] in the stomatal pore of 200 μl l-1. With respect to ABA, stomata responded in normal air with half their maximal amplitude at [ABA]s between 10-6 and 10-5 M(+-)-ABA. The amounts of ABA taken up by the leaves during the delay increased with a power <1 (on the average, 0.67) of the [ABA] in the transpiration stream. The minimal amount of ABA found to produce a stomatal response was about 1 pmol of (+-)-ABA per cm2 leaf area, almost two orders of magnitude smaller than the original content of the leaves in ABA indicating that most of the endogenous ABA was in a compartment isolated from the guard cells.

An interaction between stomatal responses to CO2 and ABA was also found in Gossypium hirsutum L. and Commelina communis L.; it was however much weaker than in X. strumarium.

Based on earlier findings and on the results of this investigation it is suggested that stomata close if the cytoplasm of the guard cells contains much malate and H+. The acid content in turn is determined by the relative rates of production of malic acid (from endogenous as well as exogenous CO2) and its removal (by transport of the anion into the vacuole and exchange of the H+ for K+ with the environment of the guard cells). The simultaneous requirement of CO2 and ABA for stomatal closure leads to the inference that ABA inhibits the expulsion of H+ from guard cells.



abscisic acid


phosphoenol pyruvate

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Raschke
    • 1
  1. 1.MSU/ERDA Plant Research LaboratoryMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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