Planta

, Volume 153, Issue 2, pp 130–139 | Cite as

Expression of storage-protein genes during soybean seed development

  • D. W. Meinke
  • J. Chen
  • R. N. Beachy
Article

Abstract

Mature seeds of Glycine max (L.) Merr. contain two major storage proteins, a glycosylated 7S protein (conglycinin) and a non-glycosylated 11S protein (glycinin). Accumulation of these proteins and their mRNAs during seed development in cv. Provar was studied by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by “Northern” (DNA-RNA) hybridization. The 11S acidic and basic subunits and the 7S α′ and α subunits began to accumulate 18–20 d after pollination, shortly after the termination of cell division in developing cotyledons, whereas the 7S β and 11S A-4 subunits were not detected until one to two weeks later, during the maturation phase of development. Messenger RNAs for 7S and 11S proteins were first detected 14–18 d after pollination, several days before the accumulation of storage proteins. Extracts from embryonic axes contained reduced levels of the 7S α subunit, very little 11S protein, no detectable 7S β or 11S A-4 subunits, and an additional 7S subunit not found in cotyledons. Soybean axes and cotyledons therefore differ in their synthesis of seed storage proteins.

Key words

Embryonic axis Glycine mRNA accumulation Seed development Storage proteins 

Abbreviations

cDNA

complimentary DNA

mRNA

messenger RNA

SDS

sodium dodecyl sulfate

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alwine, J.C., Kemp, D.J., Parker, B.A., Reiser, J., Renart, J., Stark, G.R., Wahl, G.M. (1979) Detection of specific RNAs or specific fragments of DNA by fractionation in gels and transfer to diazobenzyloxymethyl paper. Meth. Enzymol. 68, 220–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Badley, R.A., Atkinson, D., Hauser, H., Oldani, D., Green, J.P., Stubbs, J.M. (1975) The structure, physical and chemical properties of the soybean protein glycinin. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 412, 214–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey, J.M., Davidson, N. (1976) Methylmercury as a reversible denaturing agent for agarose gel electrophoresis. Anal. Biochem. 70, 75–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barton, K.A., Thompson, J.F., Madison, J.T., Rosenthal, R., Jarvis, N.P., Beachy, R.N. (1981) The biosynthesis and processing of high molecular weight precursors of soybean glycinin subunits. J. Biol. Chem. (in press)Google Scholar
  5. Beachy, R.N., Barton, K.A., Thompson, J.F., Madison, J.T. (1980) In vitro synthesis of the α and α′ subunits of the 7S storage proteins (conglycinin) of soybean seeds. Plant Physiol. 65, 990–994Google Scholar
  6. Beachy, R.N., Jarvis, N.P., Barton, K.A. (1981) In vivo and in vitro biosynthesis of subunits of the soybean 7S storage protein. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 1, 19–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beachy, R.N., Thompson, J.F., Madison, J.T. (1978) Isolation of polyribosomes and messenger RNA active in in vitro synthesis of soybean seed proteins. Plant Physiol. 61, 139–144Google Scholar
  8. Beachy, R.N., Thompson, J.F., Madison, J.T. (1979) Isolation and characterization of messenger RNAs that code for the subunits of soybean seed protein. In: The plant seed: development, preservation, and germination, pp. 67–84, Rubenstein, I., Phillips, R.L., Green, C.E., Gengenbach, B.G., eds. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruening, G., Beachy, R.N., Scalla, R., Zaitlin, M. (1976) In vitro and in vivo translation of the ribonucleic acids of a cowpea strain of tobacco mosaic virus. Virology 71, 498–517CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Carasco, J.F., Croy, R., Derbyshire, E., Boulter, D. (1978) The isolation and characterization of the major polypeptides of the seed globulin of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) and their sequential synthesis in developing seeds. J. Exp. Bot. 29, 309–323Google Scholar
  11. Chrispeels, M.J., Bollini, R., Harris, N. (1979) Biosynthesis, accumulation, and catabolism of reserve proteins in legume seeds. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 92, 535–551Google Scholar
  12. Derbyshire, E., Wright, D.J., Boulter, D. (1976) Legumin and vicilin, storage proteins of legume seeds. Phytochemistry 15, 3–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Domoney, C., Davies, D.R., Casey, R. (1980) The initiation of legumin synthesis in immature embryos of Pisum sativum L. grown in vivo and in vitro. Planta 149, 454–460Google Scholar
  14. Gayler, K.R., Sykes, G.E. (1981) β-Conglycinins in developing soybean seeds. Plant Physiol. 67, 958–961Google Scholar
  15. Glossmann, H., Neville, D.M. (1971) Glycoproteins of cell surfaces. A comparative study of three different cell surfaces of the rat. J. Biol. Chem. 246, 6339–6346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Goldberg, R.B., Hoschek, G., Tam, S.H., Ditta, G.S., Breidenbach, R.W. (1981a) Abundance, diversity, and regulation of mRNA sequence sets in soybean embryogenesis. Dev. Biol. 83, 201–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldberg, R.B., Hoschek, G., Ditta, G.S., Breidenbach, R.W. (1981b) Developmental regulation of cloned superabundant embryo mRNAs in soybean. Dev. Biol. 83, 218–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Goodman, H.M., MacDonald, R.J. (1979) Cloning of hormone genes from a mixture of cDNA molecules. Meth. Enzymol. 68, 75–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hall, T.C., Ma, Y., Buchbinder, B.U., Pyne, J.W., Sun, S.M., Bliss, F.A. (1978) Messenger RNA for G1 protein of French bean seeds: cell-free translation and product characterization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 3196–3200Google Scholar
  20. Hill, J.E., Breidenbach, R.W. (1974a) Proteins of soybean seeds. I. Isolation and characterization of the major components. Plant Physiol. 53, 742–746Google Scholar
  21. Hill, J.E., Breidenbach, R.W. (1974b) Proteins of soybean seeds. II. Accumulation of the major protein components during seed development and maturation. Plant Physiol. 53, 747–751Google Scholar
  22. Hymowitz, T., Newell, C.A., Carmer, S.G. (1977) Pedigrees of soybean cultivars released in the United States and Canada. Int. Agric. Publ., Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, USAGoogle Scholar
  23. Kahn, M., Kolter, R., Thomas, C., Figurski, D., Meyer, R., Remaut, E., Helinski, D.R. (1979) Plasmid cloning vehicles derived from plasmids ColEl, F, R6K, and RK2. Meth. Enzymol. 68, 268–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Khan, R.I., Gatehouse, J.A., Boulter, D. (1980) The seed proteins of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). J. Exp. Bot. 31, 1599–1611Google Scholar
  25. Kitamura, K., Takagi, T., Shibasaki, K. (1976) Subunit structure of soybean 11S globulin. Agric. Biol. Chem. 40, 1837–1844Google Scholar
  26. Lingappa, V.R., Lingappa, J.R., Prasad, R., Ebner, K.E., Blobel, G. (1978) Coupled cell-free synthesis, segregation, and core glycosylation of a secretory protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 2338–2342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Maizel, J.V. (1971) Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral proteins. Meth. Virol. 5, 179–246Google Scholar
  28. Maniatis, T., Jeffrey, A. Kleid, D.G. (1975) Nucleotide sequence of the rightward operator of phage λ. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 1184–1188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. McGrogan, M., Spector, D.J., Goldenberg, C.J., Halbert, D., Raskas, H.J. (1979) Purification of specific adenovirus 2 RNAs by preparative hybridization and selective thermal elution. Nucleic Acids Res. 6, 593–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Millerd, A., Thomson, J.A., Schroeder, H.E. (1978) Cotyledonary storage proteins in Pisum sativum. III. Patterns of accumulation during development. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 5, 519–534Google Scholar
  31. Moreira, M.A., Hermodson, M.A., Larkins, B.A., Nielsen, N.C., (1979) Partial characterization of the acidic and basic polypeptides of glycinin. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 9921–9926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ochiai-Yanagi, S., Fukazawa, C., Harada, K. (1978) Formation of storage protein components during soybean seed development. Agric. Biol. Chem. 42, 697–702Google Scholar
  33. Spencer, D., Higgins, T.J.V. (1979) Molecular aspects of seed protein biosynthesis. Curr. Adv. Plant Sci. 11, 34.1–34.15Google Scholar
  34. Sun, S.M., Mutschler, M.A., Bliss, F.A., Hall, T.C. (1978) Protein synthesis and accumulation in bean cotyledons during growth. Plant Physiol. 61, 918–923Google Scholar
  35. Sussex, I.M., Dale, R.M.K. (1979) Hormonal control of storage protein synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris. In: The plant seed: development, preservation, and germination, pp. 129–141, Rubenstein, I., Phillips, R.L., Green, C.E., Gengenbach, B.G., eds. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Thanh, V.H., Okubo, K., Shibasaki, K. (1975) Isolation and characterization of the multiple 7S globulins of soybean proteins. Plant Physiol. 56, 19–22Google Scholar
  37. Thanh, V.H., Shibasaki, K. (1977) Beta-conglycinin from soybean proteins. Isolation and immunological and physicochemical properties of the monomeric forms. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 490, 370–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Thanh, V.H., Shibasaki, K. (1978) Major proteins of soybean seeds: subunit structure of β-conglycinin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 26, 692–695Google Scholar
  39. Walbot, V. (1978) Control mechanisms for plant embryogeny. In: Dormancy and developmental arrest, pp. 113–166, Clutter, M.E., ed. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Wright, D.J., Boulter, D. (1972) The characterisation of vicilin during seed development in Vicia faba (L.). Planta 105, 60–65Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Meinke
    • 1
  • J. Chen
    • 1
  • R. N. Beachy
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Biology Program, Department of BiologyWashington UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations