, Volume 153, Issue 3, pp 273–278 | Cite as

Secondary fluorescence kinetics of spinach leaves in relation to the onset of photosynthetic carbon assimilation

  • D. A. Walker


When spinach leaves are re-illuminated, after dark periods of 90 s or less, an initial fluorescence peak is observed which rapidly gives way to a much lower terminal value. After 2 min or more in the dark, however, there is a secondary rise, at about 50–70 s, which then gives way, more slowly, to approximately the same low terminal value as before. The secondary rise is eliminated or disguised by feeding D,L-glyceraldehyde (a specific inhibitor of photosynthetic carbon assimilation) and by manose, 2-deoxyglucose and glucosamine, all of which are believed to sequester cytoplasmic orthophosphate. This secondary rise in fluorescence is discussed in relation to photosynthetic induction and the manner in which these compounds may modulate fluorescence by their effect on the availability of orthophosphate and their consequent impact on the adenylate status of the stroma.

Key words

Chlorophyll fluorescence CO2 assimilation, photosynthetic Photosynthesis (induction) Spinacia 







Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, J.F., Bennett, J., Steinback, K.E., Arntzen, C.J. (1981) Chloroplast protein phosphorylation couples redox state of plastoquinone to distribution of excitation energy between photosystems. Nature (London) 291, 25–29Google Scholar
  2. Baker, N.R., Bradbury, M. (1981) Possible applications of chlorophyll fluorescence techniques for studying photosynthesis in vivo. In: Plants and the daylight spectrum, Smith, H. (ed). Academic Press, New York (in press)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bannister, T.T., Rice, G. (1968) Parallel time courses of O2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 162, 555–580Google Scholar
  4. Barber, J., Horler, D.N.H., Chapman, D.C. (1981) Photosynthetic pigments and efficiency in relation to the spectral quality of absorbed light. In: Plants and the daylight spectrum, Smith, H. ed. Academic Press, New York (in press)Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, J., Steinback, K.E., Arntzen, C.J. (1980) Chloroplast phosphoproteins: Regulation of excitation energy transfer by phosphorylation of thylakoid membrane polypeptides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 5253–5257Google Scholar
  6. Bradbury, M., Baker, N.R. (1981) Analysis of the slow phases of the in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence induction curve. Changes in the redox state of photosystem II electron acceptors and fluorescence emission from photosystem I and II. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 635, 542–551Google Scholar
  7. Duysens, L.N.M., Sweers, H.E. (1963) The mechanism of two photochemical reactions in algae as studied by means of fluorescence. In: “Studies on microalgae and photosynthetic bacteria” pp. 353–372. Jap. Soc. Plant Physiol. eds. University of Tokyo Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  8. Herold, A., Walker, D.A. (1979) Transport across chloroplast envelopes — the role of phosphate. In: Membrane transport in biology, pp. 411–439. Vol. II. Giebisch, G., Tosteson, D.C., Ussing, H.H., eds, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Horton, P., Black, M.T. (1980) Activation of adenosine 5′-triphosphate-induced quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence by reduced plastoquinone. FEBS Lett 119, 141–144Google Scholar
  10. Horton, P., Black, M.T. (1981) Light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in pea chloroplasts induced by adenosine 5′-triphosphate. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 635, 53–62Google Scholar
  11. Horton, P., Allen, J.F., Black, M.T., Bennett, J. (1981) Regulation of phosphorylation of chloroplast membrane polypeptides by the redox state of plastoquinone. FEBS Lett. 125, 193–196Google Scholar
  12. Krause, G.H. (1973) The high-energy state of the thylakoid system as indicated by chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast shrinkage. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 292, 715–728Google Scholar
  13. Krause, G.H., Briantais, J.-M., Vernotte, C. (1980). Two mechanisms of reversible fluorescence quenching in chloroplasts. In: Proceedings of 5th International Congress on Photosynthesis, Kassandra-Halkidiki, September 1980. International Science Services, Jerusalem (in press)Google Scholar
  14. Lavorel, J., Etienne, A.-L. (1977) In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence. In: Primary processes of photosynthesis, pp. 203–268. J. Barber, ed. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  15. Leegood, R.C., Walker, D.A. (1981) Photosynthetic induction in wheat protoplasts and chloroplasts. Autocatalysis and light activation of enzymes. Plant Cell Environ. 4, 59–66Google Scholar
  16. Lilley, R. McC., Walker, D.A. (1979) Studies with the reconstituted chloroplast system. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology (New Series) — Photosynthesis Vol. II, pp. 41–52, Gibbs, M., Latzko, E. eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Lilley, R.McC., Chon, S.J., Mosbach, A., Heldt, H.W. (1977) The distribution of metabolites between spinach chloroplasts and medium during photosynthesis in vitro. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 460, 259–270Google Scholar
  18. McAlister, E.C., Myers, J. (1940) The time course of photosynthesis and fluorescence observed simultaneously. Smithson Inst. Misc. Collection 99, No. 6, 1–37Google Scholar
  19. Papageorgiou, G. (1975) Chlorophyll fluorescence: An intrinsic probe of photosynthesis. In: Bioenergetics of photosynthesis, pp. 320–366. Govindjee ed., Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Robinson, S.P., Walker, D.A. (1979) Photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. In: The biochemistry of plants: A comprehensive treatise, pp. 193–236, Vol. 8, Hatch, M.D., Boardman, N.K. ed. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Schreiber, U., Groberman, L., Vidaver, W. (1975) Portable, solidstate fluorometer for the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence induction in plants. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46, 538–542Google Scholar
  22. Slabas, A.R., Walker, D.A. (1976) Inhibition of spinach phosphoribulokinase by D,L-glyceraldehyde. Biochem. J. 153, 613–619Google Scholar
  23. Stokes, D.M., Walker, D.A. (1972) Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts. Inhibition by D,L-glyceraldehyde of carbon dioxide assimilation. Biochem. J. 128, 1147–1157Google Scholar
  24. Van der Veen, R. (1949) Induction phenomena in photosynthesis. Physiol. Plant. 2, 287–296Google Scholar
  25. Van der Veen, R. (1951) Fluorescence and induction phenomena in photosynthesis. Physiol. Plant. 4, 486–494Google Scholar
  26. Walker, D.A. (1976) CO2 fixation by intact chloroplasts: photosynthetic induction and its relation to transport phenomena and control mechanisms. In: The intact chloroplasts, Chap. 7, pp. 235–278. Barber, J. ed., Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  27. Walker, D.A., Robinson, S.P. (1978) Regulation of photosynthetic carbon assimilation. In: Photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Basic life sciences, Vol. 11, pp. 43–59. “Proceedings of a Symposium held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, May/June 1978”, Siegelman, H.W., Hind, G. eds.Google Scholar
  28. Walker, D.A. (1980a) Photosynthetic induction. In: Proceedings of 5th International Congress on Photosynthesis, Kassandra-Halkidiki, September 1980. International Science Services, Jerusalem (in press)Google Scholar
  29. Walker, D.A. (1980b) Preparation of higher plant chloroplasts. In: Photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. Methods in enzymology Vol. 69, pp. 94–104. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Wassink, E.C., Katz, E. (1930) The initial changes of chlorophyll fluorescence in Chlorella. Enzymologia 6, 145–172Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. A. Walker
    • 1
  1. 1.A.R.C. Research Group on Photosynthesis, Department of BotanyUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldU.K.

Personalised recommendations