Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 163, Issue 2, pp 138–142

Proline betaine is a highly effective osmoprotectant for Staphylococcus aureus

  • Ukti S. Amin
  • Timothy D. Lash
  • Brian J. Wilkinson
Original Paper

Abstract

Proline betaine is an osmoprotectant that is at least as effective as glycine betaine, and more effective than L-proline, for various strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. 13C NMR studies revealed that proline betaine accumulated to high levels in osmotically stressed S. aureus, but was also detected in organisms grown in its presence in the absence of osmotic stress. Competition experiments indicated that proline betaine was taken up by the proline transport systems of S. aureus, but not by the high affinity glycine betaine transport system.

Key words

Staphylococcus aureus Osmoregulation Proline betaine Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Coagulase-negative staphylococci 

Abbreviations

PYK

Peptode

Yeast extract

K2HPO4

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bae JH, Miller KJ (1992) Identification of two proline transport systems in Staphylococcus aureus and their possible role in osmoregulation. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:471–475Google Scholar
  2. Bae JH, Anderson SH, Miller KJ (1993) Identification of a high affinity glycine betaine transport in Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:2734–2736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bieber EJ, Wilkinson BJ (1984) Sodium-dependent, uptake of taurine in encapsulated Staphylococcus aureus strain M. Biochim Biophys Acta 770:127–135Google Scholar
  4. Chambers ST, Kunin CM (1987a) Isolation of glycine betaine and proline betaine from human urine. Assessment of their role as osmoprotective agents for bacteria and the kidney. J Clin Invest 79:731–737Google Scholar
  5. Chambers ST, Kunin CM (1987b) Osmoprotective activity for Escherichia coli in mammalian renal inner medulla and urine. Correlation of glycine and proline betaines and sorbitol with response to osmotic loads. J Clin Invest 80:1255–1260Google Scholar
  6. Cornforth JW, Henry AJ (1952) The isolation of L-stachydrine from the fruit of Capparis tomentosa. J Chem Soc 1:601–602Google Scholar
  7. Gloux K, Le Rudulier D (1989) Transport and, catabolism of proline betaine in salt-stressed Rhizobium meliloti. Arch Microbiol 151:143–148Google Scholar
  8. Graham JE, Wilkinson BJ (1992) Staphylococcus aureus osmoregulation: roles for choline, glycine betaine, proline, and taurine. J Bacteriol 174:2711–2716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kaenjak A, Graham JE, Wilkinson BJ (1993) Choline transport activity in Staphylococcus aureus induced by osmotic stress and low phosphate concentrations. J Bacteriol 175:2400–2406Google Scholar
  10. Kunin CM, Rudy J (1991) Effect of NaCl-induced osmotic stress on intracellular concentrations of glycine betaine and potassium in Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococci. J Lab. Clin Med 118:217–224Google Scholar
  11. Landfald B, Strom AR (1986) Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of, osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 165:849–855Google Scholar
  12. Larsen PI, Sydnes LK, Landfald B, Strom AR (1987) Osmoregulation in Escherichia coli by accumulation of organic osmolytes: betaines, glutamic acid and trehalose. Arch Microbiol 147:1–7Google Scholar
  13. Le Rudulier D, Bernard T, Goas G (1984) Osmoregulation in Klebsiella pneumoniae: enhancement of anaerobic growth and nitrogen fixation under stress by proline betaine, ψ-butyrobetaine, and other related compounds. Can J Microbiol 30:299–305Google Scholar
  14. Lucht JM, Bremer E (1994) Adaptation of Escherichia coli to high osmolarity environments: osmoregulation of the high-affinity glycine betaine transport system ProU. FEMS Microbiol Rev 14:3–20Google Scholar
  15. Miller KJ, Zelt SC, Bae J-H (1991) Glycine betaine and proline are the principal compatible solutes of Staphylococcus aureus. Curr Microbiol 23:131–137Google Scholar
  16. Pourkomailian B, Booth IR (1992) Glycine betaine transport by Staphylococcus aureus: evidence for two transport systems and for their possible roles in osmoregulation. J Gen Microbiol 138:2515–2518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Pourkomailian B, Booth IR (1994) Glycine betaine transport by Staphylococcus aureus: evidence for feedback regulation of the activity of the two transport systems. Microbiology 140:3131–3138Google Scholar
  18. Smith LT, Smith GM (1989) An osmoregulated dipeptide in stressed Rhizobium meliloti J Bacteriol 171:4714–4717Google Scholar
  19. Stimeling KW, Graham JE, Kaenjak A, Wilkinson BJ (1994) Evidence for feedback (trans) regulation of and two systems for glycine betaine transport by Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiology 140:3139–3144Google Scholar
  20. Townsend DE, Wilkinson BJ (1992) Proline transport in Staphylococcus aureus: a high-affinity system and a low-affinity system involved in osmoregulation. J Bacteriol 174:2702–2710Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ukti S. Amin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Timothy D. Lash
    • 2
  • Brian J. Wilkinson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Microbiology Group, Department of, Biological SciencesIllinois State UniversityNormalUSA
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryIllinois State UniversityNormalUSA

Personalised recommendations