To define the relationship between fluoride (F) concentration in the serum, urine and hair of workers and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid (HF) in the work environment, pre- and postshift serum and urine samples of 142 HF exposed workers and 237 unexposed workers were examined. Hair specimens were also collected for the determination of F. To determine whether external contamination influences hair analysis, the control hair samples were kept in the work environment for one week. The pre-exposure levels in serum and urinary F in HF workers were higher (P<0.01) than the control values. This suggests that F excretion from the body continues for at least 12 hours. The postshift serum and urinary F concentrations of these workers were significantly higher (P<0.01) than the preshift concentrations. The levels of F in the hair of HF workers were also higher than in the control subjects. The concentrations of F in postshift serum and urine, and hair were in good correlation to each other. There was a linear relationship between mean serum and urinary F concentrations and HF concentration in the workplace. A mean F concentration of 82.3 μg/l in serum and 4 mg/l in urine with a lower fiducial limit (95%, P=0.05) of 57.9 μg/l in serum and 2 mg in urine were estimated to correspond to an atmospheric HF concentration of 3 ppm, which is the maximum allowable concentration recommended by Japan Association of Industrial Health and also the threshold limit value suggested by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. F concentration in the hair increased after the hair samples were retained, however, it decreased to the reference value after washing treatment. The results support the speculation that F is excreted into the hair after long-term exposure to HF. From the results obtained, it was suggested that exposure to HF can be monitored by determining the serum, urinary and hair F concentrations.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (1967) Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents in the workroom environment with intended changes for 1967
Carlson JR (1966) Studies on the metabolism of sodium fluoride. 1. Plasma fluoride in relation to dietary fluoride in dairy cattle. PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin
Cerklewski FL, Ridlington JW (1985) Influence of zinc and iron on dietary fluoride utilization in the rat. J Nutr 115:1162–1167
Chatterjee S, Price B (1977) Regression analysis by example. Wiley, New York
Derryberry OM, Bartholomers MD, Fleming RBL (1963) Fluoride exposure and worker health. Arch Environ Health 6:503–514
Dinman BD, Colwell MO (1975) Fluoride metabolism with reference to osteosclerosis in aluminium smelter workers. Abstracts of 19th International Congress on Occupational Health: 203
Draper NR, Smith H (1966) Applied regression analysis. Wiley, New York
Japan Association of Industrial Health (1964) Recommended occupational exposure limits. Jpn J Ind Health 6:314–315
Kono K, Yoshida Y, Harada A (1984) Urinary fluoride excretion in fluoride exposed workers with diminished renal function. Ind Health 22:33–40
Parkins FM, Tianoff N, Moutinho M, Anstey MB, Wazivi MH (1974) Relationships of human plasma fluoride and bone fluoride to age. Calcif Tissue Res 16:335–338
Toyota S, Yoshida Y, Kono K, Watanabe M, Harada A (1979) Fluoride content in the urine and serum of hydrofluoric acid operators. Arch Ind Hyg Toxicol 30 (Suppl):957–966
Yamagata H, Yoshida Y, Kono K, Watanabe M, Tamura T (1987) Determination of fluoride and trace elements in human hair by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Fluoride 20:162–170
Yoshda Y, Toyota S, Kono K, Watanabe M, Iwasaki K (1978) Fluoride ion levels in the biological fluids of electonic industrial workers. Bull Osaka Med School 24:56–67
Zober A, Geldmacher M, Mallinckrodt V, Schaller KH (1977) Renal fluoride excretion as a useful parameter for monitoring hydrofluoric acid exposed persons. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 40:13–24
About this article
Cite this article
Kono, K., Yoshida, Y., Watanabe, M. et al. Urine, serum and hair monitoring of hydrofluoric acid workers. Int. Arch Occup Environ Heath 65, S95–S98 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00381315
- Hydrofluoric acid worker