Advertisement

Gender differences in age at onset of Schizophrenia

An Overview
  • Matthias C. Angermeyer
  • Ludwig Kühnz
Article

Summary

We present the results of a review of the literature concerning gender differences in age at the onset of schizophrenia. In view of the very consistent finding that the first admission to hospital for schizophrenia occurs on average earlier in men than in women we examined the question whether this is due to the fact that the psychosis manifests itself earlier in men or that the period between first manifestation and admission to hospital is shorter than in women. By means of a metaanalytic approach we then looked for evidence for the existence of local or temporal variations in the degree of gender difference. Lastly, we dealt with the question whether gender differences in age of onset can be observed in other functional psychoses.

Key words

Schizophrenia Gender differences Age at onset Age at first hospitalization Meta-analysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achté KA (1961) Der Verlauf der Schizophrenien und der schizophreniformen Psychosen. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 155Google Scholar
  2. Achté KA (1967) On prognosis and rehabilitation in schizophrenic and paranoid psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 196Google Scholar
  3. Achté KA, Apo M (1967) Schizophrenic patients in 1950–1952 and 1957–1959. Psychiatr Q 41:422–441Google Scholar
  4. Al-Issa I (1982) Sex differences in psychopathology. In: Al-Issa I (ed) Sex and psychopathology. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Angermeyer MC, Robra BP (1982) Rolle oder Etikett? Determinanten der Institutionskarriere psychisch Kranker. In: Deppe HU, Gerhard U, Novak P (eds) Medizinische Soziologie, Jahrbuch 2. Campus, Frankfurt New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Angermeyer MC, Hofmann J, Robra BP (1982) Geschlechtsunterschiede in der Institutionskarriere Schizophrener — ein Beitrag zur Sozialepidemiologie psychischer Erkrankungen. Psychiatr Prax 9:27–33Google Scholar
  7. Angermeyer MC, Goldstein JM, Kühn L (1988) Gender differences in schizophrenia: Recidivism and community tenure. Psychol Med (in press)Google Scholar
  8. Angst J (1966) Zur Atiologie und Nosologie endogener depressiver Psychosen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Angst J, Baastrup P, Grof P, Hippius H, Pöldinger W, Varga E, Weiss P, Wyss F (1973) Statistische Aspekte des Beginns und Verlaufs schizophrener Psychosen. In: Huber G (ed) Verlauf und Ausgang schizophrener Erkrankungen. Schattauer, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Auch W (1962) Untersuchungen über das Ersterkrankungsalter endogener Psychosen. Vita humana 5:87–110Google Scholar
  11. Babigian HM (1980) Schizophrenie: Epidemiologie. In: Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds) Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Williams & Williams, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  12. Bellodi L, Morabito A, Macciardi F, Gasperini M, Benvenuto MG, Grassi G, Marzorati-Spairani C, Smeraldi E (1982) Analytic considerations about observed distribution of age of onset in schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology 8:93–101Google Scholar
  13. Berner P, Kryspin-Exner K, Srisopark M, Zapotoczyk HG (1969) Zum Problem der Themenwahl bei der Schizophrenie. Wien Z Nervenheilkd 27:176–1084Google Scholar
  14. Bienert H (1976) Die Schizophrenen eines psychiatrischen Großkrankenhauses aus der Sicht des Pflegepersonals. Psychiatr Prax 3:120–126Google Scholar
  15. Bland RC (1977) Demographic aspects of functional psychoses in Canada. Acta Psychiatr Scand 55:369–380Google Scholar
  16. Bland RC, Orn H (1978) 14-year outcome in early schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 58:327–338Google Scholar
  17. Bland RC, Parker JH, Orn H (1976) Prognosis in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:949–954Google Scholar
  18. Bleuler E (1911) Dementia praecox oder Die Gruppe der Schizophrenien. In: Aschaffenburg G (ed) Handbuch der Psychiatrie. Deuticke, Leipzig WienGoogle Scholar
  19. Bleuler M (1972) Die schizophrenen Geistesstörungen im Lichte langjähriger Kranken- und Familiengeschichten. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  20. Braatoy T (1934) Manner zwischen 15 und 25 Jahren — Mentalhygienische Untersuchungen mit besonderer Berticksichtigung der Schizophrenie. Fabritius & Sonner, OsloGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown GW, Bone M, Dalison B, Wing JK (1966) Schizophrenia and social care. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Buhrich N, Haq S (1980) Characteristics of first schizophrenic admissions to the general hospital Kuala Lumpur. Med J Malaysia 34:269–272Google Scholar
  23. Cheek FE (1964) A serendipitous finding: Sex roles and schizophrenia. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 69:392–400Google Scholar
  24. Ciompi L, Müller C (1976) Lebensweg und Alter der Schizophrenen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Clausen JA, Pfeffer NG, Huffine CL (1982) Help-seeking in severe mental illness. In: Mechanic D (ed) Symptoms, illness behavior, and help-seeking. Prodist, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Dahlberg G, Stenberg S (1931) Eine statistische Untersuchung über die Wahrscheinlichkeit der Erkrankung an verschiedenen Psychosen und über die demographische Häufigkeit von Geisteskranken. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatrie 133:447–482Google Scholar
  27. Dayton NA (1980) New facts on mental disorders. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  28. Diebold K, Engel T (1977) Symptomatik, Syndromatik und Ersterkrankungsalter endogener depressiver und schizophrener Psychosen in Abhängigkeit von der Unter- bzw. Hauptdiagnose und dem Geschlecht. Nervenarzt 48:130–138Google Scholar
  29. Dohrenwend BS, Dohrenwend BP (1976) Sex differences and psychiatric disorders. Am J Sociol 81:1447–1454Google Scholar
  30. Dube KC, Kumar N (1972) An epidemiological study of schizophrenia. J Biosoc Sci 4:187–195Google Scholar
  31. Dunham HW (1965) Community and schizophrenia. Wayne State University Press, DetroitGoogle Scholar
  32. Ellison EA, Hamilton DM (1949) The hospital treatment of dementia praecox: Part II. Am J Psychiatry 106:454–461Google Scholar
  33. Farina A, Garmezy N, Barry III H (1963) Relationship of marital status to incidence and prognosis of schizophrenia. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 67:624–630Google Scholar
  34. Farina A, Murray PJ, Groh T (1978) Sex and worker acceptance of a former mental patient. J Consult Clin Psychol 46:887–891Google Scholar
  35. Faris REL, Dunham HW (1939) Mental disorders in urban areas. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  36. Fleiss JL (1981) Statistical methods for rates and proportions. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Flor-Henry P (1974) Psychosis, neurosis and epilepsy. Developmental and gender-related effects and their aetiological contribution. Br J Psychiatry 124:144–150Google Scholar
  38. Floru L, Tegeler J, Vollmoeller W (1979) Zeitbedingte Wahninhalte schizophrener Kranker. Nervenarzt 50:387–391Google Scholar
  39. Forrest AD, Hay AJ (1971) Sex differences and the schizophrenic experience. Acta Psychiatr Scand 41:137–149Google Scholar
  40. Forrest AD, Hay AJ (1972) The influence of sex on schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 48:49–57Google Scholar
  41. Fujimori H (1981) Besonderheiten oder Eigentümlichkeiten der schizophrenen Wahnthematik in Japan im Wandel der Zeit — Eine transkulturelle vergleichende Untersuchung. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 49:313–330Google Scholar
  42. Gam J (1980) A 5-year retrospective investigation of all first admitted schizophrenics to Danish psychiatric institutions in the fiscal year from April 1st, 1970, to April 1st, 1971. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 285Google Scholar
  43. Garrone G (1962) Etude statistique et génétique de la schizophrénie à Genève de 1901 à 1950. J Génét Hum 11:89–219Google Scholar
  44. Gebhardt R, Pietzcker A (1985) Sex differences in the psychopathology of inpatients. Eur Arch Psychiatr Neurol Sci 235:92–96Google Scholar
  45. Gerard K (1980) Pierwsze hospitalizacjez powodu schizofrenii: czas trwania choroby i droga chorych do szitala. Psychiatr Pol 19:505–512Google Scholar
  46. Goldstein J (1986) Gender differences in the expression of schizophrenia. Paper presented at the 139th Annual Meeting, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  47. Häfner H (1985) Geschlechtsunterschiede im Erstmanifestationsalter, in der Symptomatologie und im Verlauf schizophrener Erkrankung und Versuche ihrer Erklärung. Projektantrag SFB 255 „Risikomodelle psychischer Storungen”Google Scholar
  48. Häfner H (1987) Epidemiology of schizophrenia. In: Häfner H, Gattaz WF, Janzarik W (eds) Search for the causes of schizophrenia. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Hagnell O, Lanke J, Rorsman B, Öjesjö L (1982) Are we entering an age of melancholy? Depressive illnesses in a prospective epidemiological study over 25 years: the Lundby Study, Sweden. Psychol Med 12:279–289Google Scholar
  50. Hardt RH (1959) The ecological distribution of patients admitted to mental hospital from an urban area. Psychiatr Q 33:126–144Google Scholar
  51. Hartmann W, Meyer JE (1969) Long-term hospitalization of schizophrenic patients. Compr Psychiatry 10:122–127Google Scholar
  52. Hartmann W, Meyer JE (1974a) Übersichten zur stationären Behandlung chronisch Schizophrener in der Bundesrepublik. Nervenarzt 45:1–8Google Scholar
  53. Hartmann W, Müller P (1974b) Zur stationären Behandlung erstmals hospitalisierter Schizophrener. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatrie 42:601–614Google Scholar
  54. Hedges LV, Olkin I (1985) Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. Helgason T (1964) Epidemiology of mental disorders in Iceland. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 173Google Scholar
  56. Hertrich O (1962) Beitrag zur Diagnostik und Differentialdiagnostik der leichteren depressiven Zustandsbilder. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatrie 30:237–272Google Scholar
  57. Hilger T, Popping P, Haverkamp F (1983) Is there an increase of reproductive rates in schizophrenia? III. An investigation in Nordbaden (SW Germany): Results and discussion. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 233:177–186Google Scholar
  58. Hinterhuber H (1973) Zur Katamnese der Schizophrenien. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatrie 41:527–558Google Scholar
  59. Hornstra RK, Udell B (1974) Patterns of psychiatric utilization by diagnosed schizophrenics in the Kansas City area. Schizophr Bull 9:133–147Google Scholar
  60. Huber G, Gross G, Schüttler R (1979) Schizophrenie. Eine verlaufs- und sozialpsychiatrische Langzeitstudie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Hurley PL, Conwell M (1967) Public mental hospital release rates in five states, 1954 and 1960. Publ Health Rep 82:49–60Google Scholar
  62. Inamdar SC, Lewis DO, Siomopoulos G, Shanok SS, Lamela M (1982) Violent and suicidal behavior in psychotic adolescents. Am J Psychiatry 139:932–935Google Scholar
  63. Israel RH, Johnson NA (1956) Discharge and readmission rates in 4,254 consecutive first admissions of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 112:903–909Google Scholar
  64. Joyce PR (1984) Age of onset in bipolar affective disorder and misdiagnosis as schizophrenia. Psychol Med 14:145–149Google Scholar
  65. Jung R (1952) Zur Klinik und Pathogenes der Depression. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatrie 119:163Google Scholar
  66. Khramelashvili VV, Liberman YI (1976) Predicting the frequency of episodes of schizophrenia. (Results of an epidemiological investigation.) Neurosci Behav Physiology 7:239–244Google Scholar
  67. Klerman GL, Lavon PW, Rice J, Reich T, Endicott J, Andreasen NC, Keller MB, Hirschfield RMA (1965) Birth-cohort trends in rates of major depressive disorder among relatives of patients with affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42:689–693Google Scholar
  68. Kraepelin E (1909-1915) Psychiatrie. Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  69. Labhardt F (1963) Die schizophrenieähnlichen Emotionspsychosen. Springer, Berlin Göttingen HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  70. Landis C, Page JD (1938) Modern society and mental disease. Arno Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Langfeldt G (1937) The prognosis in schizophrenia and the factors influencing the course of the disease. Levin & Munksgaard, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  72. Lapouse R, Monk MA, Terris M (1956) The drift hypothesis and socioeconomic differentials in schizophrenia. Am J Publ Health 46:978–996Google Scholar
  73. Lassenius B, Ottosson JO, Rapp W (1973) Prognosis in schizophrenia. The need for institutionalized care. Acta Psychiatr Scand 49:294–505Google Scholar
  74. Last JM (1983) A dictionary of epidemiology. Oxford University Press, New York Oxford TorontoGoogle Scholar
  75. Lehrman NS (1960) A state hospital population five years after admission: a yardstick for evaluative comparison of followup studies. Psychiatr Q 34:658–668Google Scholar
  76. Lewine RRJ (1980) Sex differences in age of symptom onset and first hospitalization in schizophrenia. Am J Orthopsychiatry 50:316–322Google Scholar
  77. Lewine RRJ (1981) Sex differences in schizophrenia: Timing or subtypes? Psychol Bull 90:432–444Google Scholar
  78. Lewine RRJ, Strauss JS, Gift TE (1981) Sex differences in age at first hospital admission for schizophrenia: fact or artifact? Am J Psychiatry 138:440–444Google Scholar
  79. Lewinsohn PM, Duncan EM, Stanton AK, Hautzinger M (1986) Age of first onset of nonbipolar depression. J Abnorm Psychol 95:378–383Google Scholar
  80. Liberman IUI (1974) The incidence of schizophrenia (materials from a clinico-epidemiologic study). Z Nevropatol Psikhiatr 74:1224–1233Google Scholar
  81. Lindelius R (1970) A study of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 216Google Scholar
  82. Loranger AW (1984) Sex differences in age of onset of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41:157–161Google Scholar
  83. Loranger AW, Levine PM (1978) Age at onset of bipolar affective illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:1345–1348Google Scholar
  84. Lucas CJ, Sainsbury P, Collins JG (1962) Social and clinical study of delusions in schizophrenia. J Ment Sci 108:747–758Google Scholar
  85. Ludewig K (1984) Zur Frage des Zusammenhanges zwischen Devianz und Geschlecht bei psychiatrischen Patienten. Z Klin Psychol 13:221–229Google Scholar
  86. Malzberg B (1935) A statistical study of age in relation to mental disease. Ment Hygiene 19:449–476Google Scholar
  87. Malzberg B (1949) A statistical analysis of the ages of first admissions to hospitals for mental disease in New York State. Psychiatr Q 23:344–366Google Scholar
  88. Malzberg B (1955) Age and sex in relation to mental disease: A study of first admissions to hospitals for mental disease in New York State. Ment Hygiene 39:196–224Google Scholar
  89. Mantel N (1963) Chi-square tests with one degree of freedom: Extension of the Mantel-Haenszel procedure. J Am Statist Assoc 58:690–700Google Scholar
  90. Mantel N, Haenszel W (1959) Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 22:719–748Google Scholar
  91. Markush RE, Favero RV (1974) Epidemoogy assessment of stressful life events, depressed mood, and psychophysiological symptoms — A preliminary report. In: Dohrenwend BS, Dohrenwend BP (eds) Stressful life events: Their nature and effects. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. Matussek P, Halbach A, Troeger U (1965) Endogene Depression. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München BerlinGoogle Scholar
  93. McCabe MS (1975) Demographic differences in functional psychoses. Br J Psychiatry 127:320–323Google Scholar
  94. McClelland DC, Watt NF (1968) Sex-role alienation in schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol 73:226–239Google Scholar
  95. Mechanic D (1982) The epidemiology of illness behavior and its relationship to physical and psychological distress. In: Mechanic D (ed) Symptoms, illness behavior, and helpseeking. Prodist, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  96. Mechanic D (1986) Illness behavior: An overview. In: McHugh S, Vallis TM (eds) Illness behavior. A multidisciplinary model. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  97. Murakami K (1970) Preliminary report of a study on age at onset of schizophrenia. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatrie 43:210–220Google Scholar
  98. Neugebauer R, Dohrenwend BP, Dohrenwend BS (1980) Formulation of hypotheses about the true prevalence of functional psychiatric disorders among adults in the United States. In: Dohrenwend BP et al (eds) Mental illness in the United States. Praeger, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. Noreik K, Odegaard O (1967) Age at onset of schizophrenia in relation to socio-economic factors. Br J Soc Psychiatry 1:243–249Google Scholar
  100. Nyman AK (1978) Non-regressive schizophrenia: Clinical course and outcome. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 272Google Scholar
  101. Nystrup J (1976) A hospital population of schizophrenic patients undergoing change. Acta Psychiatr Scand 53:211–226Google Scholar
  102. Odegaard O (1946) A statistical investigation of the incidence of mental disorder in Norway. Psychiatr Q 20:381–399Google Scholar
  103. Omata W (1985) Schizoaffektive Psychosen in Deutschland und in Japan — Eine transkulturell-psychiatrische Studie. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatrie 53:168–176Google Scholar
  104. Pauleikoff B (1954) Statistische Untersuchung über Häufigkeit und Thema von Wahneinfällen bei der Schizophrenie. Arch Psychiatr Z Neurol 191:341–350Google Scholar
  105. Peselow ED, Dunner DL, Fieve RR, Deutsch SI, Rubinstein ME (1982) Age of onset of affective illness. Psychiatr Clin 15:124–132Google Scholar
  106. Phillips DL (1964) Rejection of the mentally ill: The influence of behavior and sex. Am Sociol Rev 29:679–687Google Scholar
  107. Pollack M, Levenstein S, Klein DF (1968) A three-year posthospital follow-up of adolescent and adult schizophrenics. Am J Orthopsychiatry 38:94–109Google Scholar
  108. Pollock HM (1926) Frequency of dementia praecox in relation to sex, age, environment, nativity, and race. Ment Hygiene 10:596–611Google Scholar
  109. Raskin A, Golob R (1966) Occurrence of sex and social class differences in premorbid competence, symptom and outcome measures in acute schizophrenics. Psychol Rep 18:11–22Google Scholar
  110. Rehm O (1919) Das manisch-melancholische Irresein. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  111. Rennie TAC (1939) Follow-up study of five hundred patients with schizophrenia admitted to the hospital from 1913 to 1923. Arch Neurol Psychiatrie 42:877–891Google Scholar
  112. Rogler LH, Hollingshead AB (1965) Trapped: Families and schizophrenia. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. Rosanoff AJ, Handy LM, Plesset IR, Brush S (1934) The etiology of so-called schizophrenic psychoses. Am J Psychiatry 91:947–985Google Scholar
  114. Rotstein VG (1982) Incidence of paranoid schizophrenia. Z Nevropatol Psikhiatr 74:1224–1233Google Scholar
  115. Rudden M, Sweeney J, Frances A, Gilmore M (1983) A comparison of delusional disorders in women and men. Am J Psychiatry 140:1575–1578Google Scholar
  116. Rzewuska M, Angst J (1982) Aspects of the course of bipolar manic-depressive, schizoaffective, and paranoid schizophrenic psychoses. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 231:487–501Google Scholar
  117. Salokangas RKR (1983) Prognostic implications of the sex of schizophrenic patients. Br J Psychiatry 142:145–151Google Scholar
  118. Samuels L (1979) Reply to Levine. Schizophr Bull 5:8–10Google Scholar
  119. Sartorius N, Jablensky A, Korten A, Ernberg G, Anker M, Cooper JE, Day R (1986) Early manifestations and first contact incidence of schizophrenia in different cultures. Psychol Med 16:909–928Google Scholar
  120. Schulz B (1951) Auszählungen in der Verwandtschaft von nach Erkrankungsalter und Geschlecht gruppierten Manisch-Depressiven. Arch Psychiatr Z Neurol 186:560–576Google Scholar
  121. Schwarz R, Biehl H, Krumm B, Schubart C (1980) Casefinding and characteristics of schizophrenic patients of recent onset in Mannheim. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 285Google Scholar
  122. Seeman MV (1981) Gender and the onset of schizophrenia: Neurohumoral influences. Psychiatr J Univ Ottawa 6:136–138Google Scholar
  123. Seeman MV (1982) Gender differences in schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry 27:107–111Google Scholar
  124. Shader RI, Jackson AH, Harmatz JS, Appelbaum PS (1977) Patterns of violent behavior among schizophrenic inpatients. Dis New System 38:13–16Google Scholar
  125. Sharikow NM (1977) Epidemiologie. In: Sneshnewski AW (ed) Schizophrenie. Thieme, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  126. Shepherd M (1957) A study of the major psychoses in an English county. Institute of Psychiatry, LondonGoogle Scholar
  127. Shmaonova LM, Liberman IUI (1979) Several features of the course of attack-like schizophrenia according to the findings of an epidemiologic study. Z Nevropatol Psikhiatr 79:770–780Google Scholar
  128. Shmaonova LM, Liberman IUI (1979) Role of sex and age in the occurrence and course of attack-like schizophrenia: based on epidemiological study data. Z Nevropatol Psikhiatr 79:611–617Google Scholar
  129. Shmaonova LM, Liberman IUI (1980) Results from an epidemiological study on childhood schizophrenia. Z Nevropatol Psikhiatr 74:1224–1233Google Scholar
  130. Shumakov VM, Kiselev AS, Golland VB (1975) Comparative sociodemographic characteristics of schizophrenic patients committing socially dangerous acts. Z Nevropatol Psikhiatr 75:1691–1695Google Scholar
  131. Slater E (1938) Zur Erbpathologie des manisch-depressiven Irreseins. Die Eltern und Kinder von Manisch-Depressiven. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatrie 163:1–47Google Scholar
  132. Slater E, Cowie V (1971) The genetics of mental disorders. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  133. Smith ML, Glass GV, Miller TI (1980) The benefits of psychotherapy. John Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  134. Soskis DA, Harrow M, Detre TP (1969) Long-term follow-up of schizophrenics admitted to a general hospital psychiatric ward. Psychiatr Q 43:525–534Google Scholar
  135. Steinebrunner E, Scharfetter C (1976) Wahn im Wandel der Geschichte. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 22:47–60Google Scholar
  136. Strömgren E (1935) Zum Ersatz des Weinbergschen „abgekürzten Verfahrens”. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatrie 153:784–797Google Scholar
  137. Stumme W (1975) Psychische Erkrankungen — im Urteil der Bevölkerung. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München Berlin WienGoogle Scholar
  138. Trostorff SV (1975) Verlauf und Psychose in der Verwandtschaft bei den systematischen und unsystematischen Schizophrenien und den zykloiden Psychosen. Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol 27:80–100Google Scholar
  139. Tsoi WF, Chen AJ (1979) New admissions to Woodbridge Hospital 1975 with special reference to schizophrenia. Ann Acad Med Singapore 8:275–279Google Scholar
  140. Tsuang MT, Dempsey GM, Ranscher F (1976) A study of “atypical schizophrenia”. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:1157–1160Google Scholar
  141. Tudor W, Tudor JF, Gove WR (1977) The effect of sex role differences on the social control of mental illness. J Health Soc Behav 18:98–112Google Scholar
  142. Vogel T, Vliegen J (1975) Soziale Auswirkungen der Schizophrenie. Nervenarzt 46:569–575Google Scholar
  143. Vollmoeller W (1983) Alters- und Geschlechtsabhängigkeiten schizophrener Wahnthematik — Ein Beitrag zum Verständnis des krankhaften Denkens? Psychiatr Prax 10:194–199Google Scholar
  144. Walker RG (1961) Comparison of age of onset of schizophrenia among patients hospitalized in Ranchi, India, and in Brockton, USA. J Neuropsychiatry 2:181–185Google Scholar
  145. Walsh D (1969) Mental illness in Dublin — First admissions. Br J Psychiatry 115:449–456Google Scholar
  146. Walsh D, Walsh B (1970) Mental illness in the Republic of Ireland — First admissions. J Ir Med Assoc 63:365–370Google Scholar
  147. Warren CAB (1983) Mental illness in the family: A comparison of husbands' and wives' definitions. J Fam Issues 4:533–558Google Scholar
  148. Weich MJ (1968) Behavioral differences between groups of acutely psychotic (schizophrenic) males and females. Psychiatr Q 42:107–122Google Scholar
  149. Weiner BP, Marvit RC (1977) Schizophrenia in Hawaii: Analysis of cohort mortality risk in a multiethnic population. Br J Psychiatry 131:497–503Google Scholar
  150. Weissman MM, Myers JK (1978) Rates and risks of depressive symptoms in a United States urban community. Acta Psychiatr Scand 57:219Google Scholar
  151. Weissman MM, Leaf PJ, Tischler GL, Blazer DG, Karno M, Bruce ML, Florio LP (1988) Affective disorders in five United States communities. Psychol Med 18:141–153Google Scholar
  152. Wertham FI (1929) A group of benign chronic psychoses: prolonged manic excitements. Am J Psychiatry 9:15–70Google Scholar
  153. Westermeyer JF, Harrow M (1983) The posthospital adjustment of schizophrenic women and schizophrenic men by broad (DSM II) and narrow (DSM III) diagnostic criteria. Paper presented at the Meeting of the Society for Life History Research in Psychopathology Cambridge, MassGoogle Scholar
  154. White WA (1935) Outlines of psychiatry. Nervous and mental disease monograph series no. 1, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  155. Zigler E, Levine J (1981) Age on first hospitalization of schizophrenics: A developmental approach. J Abnorm Psychol 90:458–467Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthias C. Angermeyer
    • 1
  • Ludwig Kühnz
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatric Sociology, 15Central Institute of Mental Health MannheimMannheim 1Germany
  2. 2.Department of Medical SociologyMedizinische Hochschule HannoverHannoverGermany

Personalised recommendations