Oecologia

, Volume 77, Issue 1, pp 73–80 | Cite as

Competition between two stream dwelling filter-feeders, Hydropsyche oslari and Simulium virgatum

  • Nina Hemphill
Original Papers

Summary

This study investigated whether interspecific competition affected the abundance and distribution of Hydropsyche oslari and Simulium virgatum. In addition, I studied the mechanisms of competition between the two taxa. H. oslari was the superior competitor when compared to S. virgatum because the presence of H. oslari in boulder habitats in Refugio Creek altered the microdistribution and depressed numbers of S. virgatum. Hydropsyche preempted space and was aggressive towards Simulium. Simulium avoided both hydropsychid larvae and their nets. This avoidance behaviour was reinforced by aggression from H. oslari. Possible immediate reasons why simuliids avoided Hydropsyche nets included 1) Hydropsyche attacked Simulium, 2) occupied nets interfered with feeding through increased turbulence or lower renewal rate for food, and 3) Simulium preferred to settle with conspecifics.

Key words

Interspecific competition Filter feeders Hydropsyche Simulium Stream invertebrates 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benke AC, Van Arsdall Jr. TC, Gillespie DM (1984) Invertebrate productivity in a subtropical blackwater river: the importance of habitat and life history. Ecol Monogr 54:25–63Google Scholar
  2. Boon PJ (1984) Habitat exploitation by larvae of Amphipsyche meridiana (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) in a Javanese lake outlet. Freshwater Biol 14:1–12Google Scholar
  3. Burton GJ, McRae TM (1972) Observations on trichopteran predation on the aquatic stages of Simulium damnosum and other Simulium in Ghana. J Med Entomol 9:289–295Google Scholar
  4. Buss LW (1980) Bryozoan overgrowth interactions — the interdependence of competition for space and food. Nature: 475–477Google Scholar
  5. Chance MM, Craig DA (1986) Hydrodynamics and behaviour of Simuliidae larvae (Diptera). Can J Zool 64:1295–1309Google Scholar
  6. Chutter FM (1968) On the ecology of the fauna of stones in the current in a South African river supporting a very large Simulium population. J Appl Ecol 5:531–561Google Scholar
  7. Colbo MH (1982) Size and fecundity of adult Simuliidae (Diptera) as a function of stream habitat, year, and parasitism. Can J Zool 60:2507–2513Google Scholar
  8. Colbo MH, Porter GN (1981) The interaction of rearing temperature and food supply on the life history of two species of Simuliidae (Diptera). Can J Zool 59:158–163Google Scholar
  9. Connell JH (1961) The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42:710–723Google Scholar
  10. Connell JH (1983) On the prevalence and relative importance of interspecific competition: evidence from field experiments. Am Nat 122:661–696Google Scholar
  11. Craig DA, Chance MM (1982) Filter feeding in larvae of Simuliidae (Diptera: Culicomorpha): aspects of functional morphology and hydrodynamics. Can J Zool 60:712–724Google Scholar
  12. Crosby TK (1975) Food of the New Zealand trichopterans Hydrobiosis parumbripennis McFarlane and Hydropsyche colonica McLachlan. Freshwater Biol 5:105–114Google Scholar
  13. Dayton PK (1971) Competition, disturbance, and community organization: the provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community. Ecol Monogr 41:351–389Google Scholar
  14. Dudley TL, Cooper SD, Hemphill N (1986) Effects of macroalgae on a stream invertebrate community. J N Am Benthol Soc 5:93–106Google Scholar
  15. Edington JM (1965) The effect of water flow on populations of net-spinning Trichoptera. Mitt Internat Verein Limnol 13:40–48Google Scholar
  16. Everest JM (1967) Midget Bentzel current speed tube for ecological investigations. Limnol Oceanogr 12:179–180Google Scholar
  17. Fuller RL, Mackay RJ (1980) Feeding ecology of three species of Hydropsyche (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) in southern Ontario. Can J Zool 58:2239–2251Google Scholar
  18. Fuller RL, Mackay RJ, Hynes HBN (1983) Seston capture by Hydropsyche betteni nets (Trichoptera; Hydropsychidae). Arch Hydrobiol 97:251–261Google Scholar
  19. Gersabeck EF Jr., Merritt RW (1979) The effect of physical factors on the colonization and relocation behavior of immature black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae). Environ Entomol 8:34–39Google Scholar
  20. Harding J, Colbo MH (1981) Competition for attachment sites between larvae of Simuliidae (Diptera). Can Ent 113:761–763Google Scholar
  21. Harrison AD (1958) Hydrobiological studies on the Great Berg River, Western Cape Province. Part 2. Quantitative studies on sandy bottoms, notes on tributaries and further information on the fauna, arranged systematically. Trans R Soc S Afr 35:227–276Google Scholar
  22. Hart DD (1983) The importance of competitive interactions within stream populations and communities. In: Barnes JR, Minshall GW (eds) Stream ecology: application and testing of general ecological theory. Plenum Press New York:99–136Google Scholar
  23. Hart DD (1985) Causes and consequences of territoriality in a grazing stream insect. Ecology 66:404–414Google Scholar
  24. Hart DD (1986) The adaptive significance of territoriality in filter-feeding larval blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae). Oikos 46:88–92Google Scholar
  25. Hart DD, Latta ST (1986) Determinants of ingestion rates in filterfeeding larval blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae). Freshwater Biol 16:1–14Google Scholar
  26. Hemphill N, Cooper SD (1983) The effect of physical disturbance on the relative abundances of two filter-feeding insects in a small stream. Oecologia 58:378–382Google Scholar
  27. Hildrew AG, Edington JM (1979) Factors facilitating the coexistence of hydropsychid caddis larvae (Trichoptera) in the same river system. J Anim Ecol 48:557–576Google Scholar
  28. Hildrew AG, Townsend CR (1980) Aggregation, interference and foraging by larvae of Plectrocnemia conspersa (Trichoptera: Polycentropodidae). Anim Behav 28:553–560Google Scholar
  29. Hynes HBN, Williams TR (1962) The effect of DDT on the fauna of a Central African stream. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 56:78–91Google Scholar
  30. Jackson JBC (1979) Overgrowth competition between encrusting cheilostome ectoprocts in a Jamaican cryptic reef environment. J Anim Ecol 48:805–823Google Scholar
  31. Jansson A, Vuoristo T (1979) Significance of stridulation in larval Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera). Behaviour 71:167–186Google Scholar
  32. Johnstone GW (1964) Stridulation by larval Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera). Proc R Ent Soc Lond 39:146–150Google Scholar
  33. Kay AM, Keough MJ (1981) Occupation of patches in the epifaunal communities on pier pilings and the bivalve Pinna bicolor at Edithburgh, South Australia. Oecologia 48:123–130Google Scholar
  34. Keough MJ (1984a) Effects of patch size on the abundance of sessile marine invertebrates. Ecology 65:423–437Google Scholar
  35. Keough MJ (1984b) Dynamics of the epifauna of the bivalve Pinna bicolor: interactions among recruitment, predation, and competition. Ecology 65:677–688Google Scholar
  36. Kurtak DC (1973) observations on filter feeding by the larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae. PhD thesis, Cornell University, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  37. Kurtak DC (1978) Efficiency of filter-feeding of blackfly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae). Can J Zool 56:1608–1623Google Scholar
  38. Lawton JH, Hassell MP (1981) Asymmetrical competition in insects. Nature 289: 793–795Google Scholar
  39. Mackie GL, Quadri SU, Reed RM (1978) Significance of litter size in Musculium securis (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae). Ecology 59: 1069–1074Google Scholar
  40. Malas D, Wallace JB (1977) Strategies for coexistence in three species of net-spinning caddisflies (Trichoptera) in second-order southern Appalachian streams. Can J Zool 55: 1829–1840Google Scholar
  41. McAuliffe JR (1983) Competition, colonization patterns, and disturbance in stream benthic communities. In: Barnes and Minshall (eds) Stream Ecology: Application and testing of general ecological theory. Plenum Press New York: 137–156Google Scholar
  42. McAuliffe JR (1984a) Competition for space, disturbance, and the structure of a benthic stream community. Ecology 65: 894–908Google Scholar
  43. McAuliffe JR (1984b) Resource depression by a stream herbivore: effects on distribution and abundances of other grazers. Oikos 42: 327–333Google Scholar
  44. Neill W (1984) Regulation of rotifer densities by crustancean zooplankton in an oligotrophic montane lake in British Colombia. Oecologia 61: 175–181Google Scholar
  45. O'Neill PL (1978) Hydrodynamic analysis of feeding in sand dollars. Oecologia 34: 157–174Google Scholar
  46. Pavlichenko VI (1977) Role of larve Hydropsyche angustipennis Curt. (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae) in the destruction of blackfly larvae in running water of Zaporozha Oblast. Sov J Ecol (Engl Trans Ekologiya) 8: 84–85Google Scholar
  47. Peckarsky BL (1983) Use of behavioral experiments to test ecological theory in streams. In: Barnes JR, Minshall GW (eds) Stream ecology: application and testing of general ecological theory. Plenum Press New York: 79–98Google Scholar
  48. Peterson BV (1980) Notes on some natural enemies of Utah blackflies. Can Entomol 92: 266–274Google Scholar
  49. Peterson CH (1979) The importance of predation and competition in organizing the intertidal epifaunal communities of Barnegat Inlet, New Jersey. Oecologia 39: 1–24Google Scholar
  50. Reisen WK (1977) The ecology of Honey Creek, Oklahoma: population dynamics and drifting behavior of three species of Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae). Can J Zool 55: 325–337Google Scholar
  51. Schoener TW (1983) Field experiments on interspecific competition. Am Nat 122: 240–285Google Scholar
  52. Schroder P (1980) Zur Ernährungsbiologie der Larven von Odagmia ornata Meigen (Diptera: Simuliidae). I. Die Filtriertätigkeit unter dem Einfluß von Fließgeschwindigkeit, Wassertemperatur und Futterkonzentration. Arch Hydrobiol Suppl 59: 43–52Google Scholar
  53. Smith DW, Cooper SD (1982) Competition among Cladocera. Ecology 63: 1004–1015Google Scholar
  54. Swarbrick SL (1984) Disturbance, recruitment and competition in a marine invertebrate community. PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa BarbaraGoogle Scholar
  55. Thorp JH (1983) An evaluation of hypotheses on the evolutionary differentiation of catchnets in net-spinning caddisflies (Hydropsychidae). Oikos 40: 308–312Google Scholar
  56. Ulfstrand S, Nilsson LM, Stergar A (1974) Composition and diversity of benthic species collectives colonizing implanted substrates in a south Swedish stream. Ent Scand 5: 115–122Google Scholar
  57. Vogel S (1981) Life in moving fluids. The physical biology of flow. Princeton Univ. PressGoogle Scholar
  58. Wallace JB (1975) Food partitioning in net-spinning Trichoptera larvae: Hydropsyche venularis, Cheumatopsyche etrona, and Macronema zebratum (Hydropsychidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 68: 463–472Google Scholar
  59. Wiley MJ, Kohler SL (1981) An assessment of biological interactions in an eilithic stream community using time lapse cinematography. Hydrobiol 75: 183–188Google Scholar
  60. Williams NE, Hynes HBN (1973) Microdistribution and feeding of the net-spinning caddisflies (Trichoptera) of a Canadian stream. Oikos 24: 73–84Google Scholar
  61. Zar JH (1984) Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nina Hemphill
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations