Advertisement

Health surveillance of workers exposed to tetrachloroethylene in dry-cleaning shops

  • R. Lauwerys
  • J. Herbrand
  • J. P. Buchet
  • A. Bernard
  • J. Gaussin
Original Papers

Summary

Behavioral, renal, hepatic and pulmonary tests were applied to 22 subjects exposed to tetrachloroethylene in 6 dry-cleaning shops. The results were compared with those obtained in 33 subjects non-occupationally exposed to organic solvents. The intensity of exposure was monitored by personal environmental monitoring and by urine analysis for trichloroacetic acid and expired air and venous blood analysis for tetrachloroethylene. The time-weighted average exposure to tetrachloroethylene amounted to 21 ppm (range 9 to 38 ppm). The correlation between the concentration of tetrachloroethylene in ambient air sampled with the charcoal tube method and with a passive dosimeter indicates that the latter can correctly estimate the time-weighted average exposure to the solvent. In view of the long biological half-life of tetrachloroethylene, the internal dose may be better estimated by measuring its concentration in blood 16 h after the end of exposure (i.e. before resuming work the next morning). The present study suggests that if the blood concentration of tetrachloroethylene does not exceed 1 mg/1,16 h after the end of exposure, the time-weighted average exposure is likely to have been below 50 ppm. Exposure to such level for 6 years on the average does not seem to exert any adverse effect on the central nervous system, the liver and the kidney.

Key words

Tetrachloroethylene Dry-cleaning shops Personal monitoring Biological monitoring Health effects 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) (1982) Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents in the work environment with intended changes for 1982. Cincinnati, OH, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernard A, Vyskocil A, Lauwerys R (1981) Determination β 2-microglobulin in human urine and serum by latex immunoassay. Clin Chem 27:382–387Google Scholar
  3. Bernard A, Moreau D, Lauwerys R (1982) Latex immunoassay of retinol-binding protein. Clin Chem 28:1167–1171Google Scholar
  4. Bernard A, Lauwerys R (1983) Latex immunoassay of urinary albumin. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 21:25–30Google Scholar
  5. Bolt HM, Laib RJ, Filser JG (1982) Commentary. Reactive metabolites and carcinogenicity of halogenated ethylenes. Biochem Pharmacol 31:14Google Scholar
  6. Bonse G, Henschler H (1976) Chemical reactivity, biotransformation and toxicity of polychlorinated aliphatic compounds. CRC Crit Rec Toxicol 4:395–409Google Scholar
  7. Buchet JP, Lauwerys R, Roels H (1974) Le dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse des métabolites urinaires du trichloréthylène: l'acide trichloroacétique et le trichloroéthanol. Arch Mal Prof 35:395–402Google Scholar
  8. Carpenter CP (1937) The chronic toxicity of tetrachloroethylene. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 19:323–336Google Scholar
  9. Cerna M, Kypenova H (1977) Mutagenic activity of chloroethylenes analysed by screening system tests. Mutat Res 46:214–215Google Scholar
  10. Cherniak RM (1977) Pulmonary function testing. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Coler HR, Rossmiller HR (1953) Tetrachloroethylene exposure in a small industry. Ind Hyg Occup Med 8:227Google Scholar
  12. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (1982) Maximum concentrations at the workplace 1982. Commission for Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area. Boldt Verlag, 5407 Boppard, FRGGoogle Scholar
  13. Fernandez J, Guberan E, Caperos J (1976) Experimental human exposures to tetrachloroethylene vapor and elimination in breath after inhalation. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 37:143Google Scholar
  14. Greim H, Bonse G, Radwan Z, Reichert D, Henschler D (1975) Mutagenicity in vitro and potential carcinogenicity of chlorinated ethylenes as a function of metabolic oxirane formation. Biochem Pharmacol 24:2013–2017Google Scholar
  15. Ikeda M, Koizumi A, Watanabe T, Endo A, Sato K (1980) Cytogenetic and cytokinetic investigations on lymphocytes from workers occupationally exposed to tetrachloroethylene. Toxicol Lett 5:251–256Google Scholar
  16. Lauwerys R (1983) Industrial chemical exposure: guidelines for biological monitoring. Biomedical Publications. Davis, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  17. Meckler LC, Phelps DK (1966) Liver disease secondary to tetrachloroethylene exposure. J Am Med Assoc 197:144–145Google Scholar
  18. Monster AC, Boersma C, Steenweg H (1976) Kinetics of tetrachloroethylene in volunteers: influence of exposure concentration and work load. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 42:303Google Scholar
  19. NIOSH (1978a) Manual of analytical methods, vol 4. Cincinnati, Ohio, USAGoogle Scholar
  20. NIOSH (1978b) Current intelligence bulletin 20: Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene). DHEW Publication, pp 78–112Google Scholar
  21. Ogata M, Takatsuka Y, Tomokuni K (1971) Excretion of organic chloride compounds in the urine of persons exposed to vapours of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Br J Ind Med 28:386–391Google Scholar
  22. Pedersen LM, Nygaard E, Nielsen OS, Saltin B (1980) Solvent-induced occupational myopathy. J Occup Med 22:603–606Google Scholar
  23. Rowe VK, McCollister DD, Spencer HC, Adams EM, Irish DD (1952) Vapor toxicity of tetrachloroethylene for laboratory animals and human subjects. Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 5:566–579Google Scholar
  24. Schumann AM, Quast JF, Watanabe PG (1980) The pharmacokinetics and macromolecular interactions of perchloroethylene in mice and rats as related to oncogenicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 55:207Google Scholar
  25. Schwetz BA, Leong BKJ, Gehring PJ (1975) The effect of maternally inhaled trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methylchloroform, and methylene chloride on embryonal and fetal development in mice and rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 32:84–96Google Scholar
  26. Stewart RD, Dodd HC (1964) Absorption of carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, methylene chloride and 1,1,1 trichloroethane through the human skin. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 25:439Google Scholar
  27. Stewart RD, Baretta ED, Dodd HC, Torkelson TR (1970) Experimental human exposure to tetrachloroethylene. Arch Environ Health 20:224–229Google Scholar
  28. Stewart RD, Hake CL, Wu A, Kalbfleisch J, Newton E, Marlow SK, Vuciecevic-Salama M (1977) Effect of perchloroethylene/drug interaction on behavior and neurological function. NIOSH Technical Information. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Cincinnati, Ohio, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Lauwerys
    • 1
  • J. Herbrand
    • 1
  • J. P. Buchet
    • 1
  • A. Bernard
    • 1
  • J. Gaussin
    • 2
  1. 1.Unité de Toxicologie Industrielle et Médicale, Département de Médecine et Hygiène du TravailUniversité Catholique de LouvainBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Centre de Psychologie du Travail et de Dynamique des Groupes, Faculté de Psychologie et des Sciences de l'EducationUniversité Catholique de LouvainLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium

Personalised recommendations