Advertisement

Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde

, Volume 53, Issue 2, pp 133–141 | Cite as

The action of metabolic inhibitors on microgametogenesis in Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis

  • P. J. Toyé
  • R. E. Sinden
  • Elizabeth U. Canning
Article

Summary

Mature gametocytes of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis were incubated in vitro with a variety of antibiotics whose activities were directed against DNA, RNA, protein and microtubule assembly. Following incubation for periods between 5 and 90 min, exflagellation was induced and the degree of inhibition produced by each drug was assayed microscopically.

The results obtained show that de novo synthesis of axonemes and proteins is essential to the events of microgametogenesis. The inhibitory effect of actinomycin-D suggests that de novo RNA synthesis is also required. However, the inactivity of 8-azaguanine, a drug also effective against m-RNA metabolism, casts some doubt on the requirement for m-RNA synthesis.

DNA synthesis is not required during the three successive mitotic divisions of the parasite genome during microgametogenesis. The mature microgametocyte therefore contains the 8c DNA required for microgamete production.

Keywords

Plasmodium Metabolic Inhibitor Mitotic Division Microtubule Assembly Parasite Genome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aikawa, M., Huff, C.G., Strome, C.P.A.: Morphological study of microgametogenesis in Leucocytozoon simondi. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 32, 43–68 (1970)Google Scholar
  2. Alger, N.E., Spira, D.T., Silverman, P.H.: Inhibition of rodent malaria in mice by rifampicin. Nature 227, 381–382 (1970)Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, L.L., Smithers, D., Ward, C.T.: Inhibition of DNA synthesis in mammalian cells by Actidione. Biochem. biophys. Acta 87, 60–69 (1964)Google Scholar
  4. Bishop, A., McConnachie, E.E.: A study of the factors affecting the emergence of the gametocytes of Plasmodium gallinaceum from the erythrocytes and the exflagellation of the male gametocytes. Parasitology 46, 192–215 (1956)Google Scholar
  5. Bishop, A., McConnachie, E.W.: Further observations on the in vitro development of the parasites of Plasmodium gallinaceum. Parasitology 50, 431–448 (1960)Google Scholar
  6. Bradbury, P.C., Trager, W.: The fine structure of microgametogenesis in Haemoproteus columbae Kruse. J. Protozool. 15, 700–712 (1968)Google Scholar
  7. Büngener, W., Nielsen, G.: Nukleinsäurestoffwechsel bei experimenteller Malaria. 1. Untersuchungen über den Einbau von Thymidin, Uridin und Adenosin in Malariaparasiten (Plasmodium berghei und Plasmodium vinckei). Z. Tropenmed. Parasit. 18, 456–462 (1967)Google Scholar
  8. Büngener, W., Nielsen, G.: Nukleinsäurestoffwechsel bei experimenteller Malaria. 2. Einbau von Adenosin und Hypoxanthin in die Nukleinsäuren von Malariaparasiten (Plasmodium berghei und Plasmodium vinckei). Z. Tropenmed. Parasit. 19, 185–197 (1968)Google Scholar
  9. Canning, E.U., Sinden, R.E.: Nuclear organisation in gametocytes of Plasmodium and Hepatocystis: A cytochemical study. Z. Parasitenk. 46, 297–299 (1975)Google Scholar
  10. Coyne, F., Rosenbaum, J.L.: Flagellar elongation and shortening in Chlamydomonas. II. Reutilization of flagellar proteins. J. Cell Biol. 47, 777–781 (1970)Google Scholar
  11. Gale, E.F., Cundliffe, E., Reynolds, P.E., Richmond, M.H., Waring, M.J.: The molecular basis of antibiotic action, p. 361. London: John Wiley 1972Google Scholar
  12. Garnham, P.C.C., Bird, R.G., Baker, J.R.: Electron microscope studies of motile stages of malaria parasites. V. Exflagellation in Plasmodium, Hepatocystis and Leucocytozoon. Trans. roy. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 61, 58–68 (1967)Google Scholar
  13. Goldberg, I.H., Friedman, P.A.: Antibiotics and nucleic acids. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 40, 775–810 (1971)Google Scholar
  14. Gutteridge, W.E., Trigg, P.I.: Incorporation of radio-active precursors into DNA and RNA of Plasmodium knowlesi in vitro. J. Protozool. 17, 89–96 (1970)Google Scholar
  15. Killick-Kendrick, R.: Parasitic protozoa of the blood of rodents. I. The life-cycle and zoogeography of Plasmodium berghei nigeriensis subsp. nov. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 67, 261–277 (1973)Google Scholar
  16. Killick-Kendrick, R.: Parasitic protozoa of the blood of rodents. II. Haemogregarines, malaria parasites and piroplasms of rodents: an annotated checklist and host-index. Acta trop. 31, 28–69 (1974)Google Scholar
  17. Kowit, J.D., Fulton, C.: Programmed synthesis of tubulin for the flagella that develop during cell differentiation in Naegleria gruberi. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 71, 2877–2881 (1974)Google Scholar
  18. Laveran, A.: Note sur un nouveau parasite trouvé dans le sang de plusieurs malades atteints de fiève palustre. Bull. Acad. Méd. 9, 1235–1236 (1880)Google Scholar
  19. Lodish, H.F., Houseman, D., Jacobsen, M.: Initiation of haemoglobin synthesis, specific inhibition by antibiotics and bacteriophage ribonucleic acid. Biochemistry 10, 2348–2356 (1971)Google Scholar
  20. Manandhar, M.S.P., Van Dyke, K.: Detailed purine salvage metabolism in and outside the free malaria parasite. Exp. Parasit. 37, 138–146 (1975)Google Scholar
  21. Omar, M.S., Collins, W.E.: The antimalarial activity of R.C. 12 against gametocytes and sporogony of Plasmodium cynomolgi. Trans. roy. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 67, 423–424 (1973)Google Scholar
  22. Omar, M.S., Collins, W.E.: Studies on the antimalarial effects of R.C. 12 and WR 14997 on the development of Plasmodium cynomolgi in mosquitoes and rhesus monkeys. Amer. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 23, 339–349 (1974)Google Scholar
  23. Omar, M.S., Collins, W.E., Contacos, P.G.: Gametocytocidal and sporontocidal effects of antimalarial drugs on malaria parasites. II. Action of folic reductase inhibitors, chloroguanide, and pyrimethamine against Plasmodium cynomolgi. Exp. Parasit. 36, 167–177 (1974)Google Scholar
  24. Pitelka, D.R.: Basal bodies and root structures. In: Cilia and flagella, M. Sleigh, ed., p. 453. London: Academic Press 1974Google Scholar
  25. Raffaele, G.: Sulla strutture dei gameti maschili dei plasmodidi. Riv. Malar. 18, 141–152 (1939)Google Scholar
  26. Reich, E., Goldberg, I.H.: Actinomycin and nucleic acid function. Nuc. Acid. Res. and Mol. Biol. 3, 183–234 (1964)Google Scholar
  27. Roller, N.R., Desser, S.S.: The effect of temperature, age and density of gametocytes, and changes in gas composition on exflagellation in Leucocytozoon simondi. Canad. J. Zool. 51, 577–587 (1973)Google Scholar
  28. Rosenbaum, J.L., Moulder, J.E., Ringo, D.L.: Flagellar elongation and shortening in Chlamydomonas. Science 41, 600–619 (1965)Google Scholar
  29. Schuster, F.L.L Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of solitary stages of true slime moulds. Protistologica 1, Fasc. L, 49–62 (1965)Google Scholar
  30. Sinden, R.E.: Microgametogenesis in Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis: a scanning electron microscope investigation. Protistologica 11, 263–268 (1975)Google Scholar
  31. Sinden, R.E., Canning, E.U., Spain, B.: Gametogenesis and fertilisation in Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis: A transmission electron microscope study. Proc. roy. Soc. Lond. B 193, 55–76 (1976)Google Scholar
  32. Sinden, R.E., Croll, N.A.: Cytology and kinetics of microgametogenesis and fertilisation in Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. Parasitology 70, 53–65 (1975)Google Scholar
  33. Stein, G., Stein, J., Thrall, C., Park, W.: Regulation of histone gene transcription during the cell cycle by non-histone chromosomal proteins. In: Chromosomal proteins and their role in the regulation of gene expression, S. Stein, L.J. Kleinsmith eds., pp. 1–17. New York: Academic Press 1975Google Scholar
  34. Trager, W.: Malaria parasites (Plasmodium lophurae) developing extracellularly in vitro: Incorporation of labelled precursors. J. Protozool. 18, 392–399 (1971)Google Scholar
  35. Van Dyke, K., Tremblay, G.C., Lantz, C.H., Szustkiewicz, C.: The source of purines and pyrimidines in Plasmodium berghei. Amer. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 19, 202–208 (1970)Google Scholar
  36. Warhurst, D.C.: The action of antibiotics and inhibitors upon chloroquine-induced autophagic vacuole formation in P. berghei in vitro. In: Basic research on malaria, J.B. Bateman, ed., pp. 228–238. E.R.O. Technical report ERO-5-74, European Research Office, U.S. Army R & D Group (Europe) 1974Google Scholar
  37. Warhurst, D.C., Homewood, C.A., Peters, W., Baggaley V.C.: Pigment changes in Plasmodium berghei as indicators of activity and mode of action of antimalarial drugs. Proc. helminth. Soc. Wash. 39, 271–278 (1972)Google Scholar
  38. Wilkinson, R.N., Colwell, W.J., Neoy Patimanond, S.: Effect of sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim on the viability of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. Trans. roy. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 66, 148–149 (1972)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. Toyé
    • 1
  • R. E. Sinden
    • 1
  • Elizabeth U. Canning
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology and Applied EntomologyImperial CollegeLondonUK

Personalised recommendations