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Oecologia

, Volume 66, Issue 4, pp 475–483 | Cite as

Canopy transpiration and water fluxes in the xylem of the trunk of Larix and Picea trees — a comparison of xylem flow, porometer and cuvette measurements

  • E. -D. Schulze
  • J. Čermák
  • M. Matyssek
  • M. Penka
  • R. Zimmermann
  • F. Vasícek
  • W. Gries
  • J. Kučera
Article

Summary

Leaf gas exchange, transpiration, water potential and xylem water flow measurements were used in order to investigate the daily water balance of intact, naturally growing, adult Larix and Picea trees without major injury. The total daily water use of the tree was very similar when measured as xylem water flow at breast height or at the trunk top below the shade branches, or as canopy transpiration by a porometer or gas exchange chamber at different crown positions. The average canopy transpiration is about 12% lower than the transpiration of a single twig in the sun crown of Larix and Picea. Despite the similarity in daily total water flows there are larger differences in the actual daily course. Transpiration started 2 to 3 h earlier than the xylem water flow and decreased at noon before the maximum xylem water flow was reached, and stopped in the evening 2 to 3 h earlier than the water flow though the stem. The daily course of the xylem water flow was very similar at the trunk base and top below the lowest branches with shade needles. The difference in water efflux from the crown via transpiration and the water influx from the trunk is caused by the use of stored water. The specific capacitance of the crown wood was estimated to be 4.7 x 10-8 and 6.3 x 10-8 kg kg-1 Pa-1 and the total amount of available water storage was 17.8 and 8.7 kg, which is 24% and 14% of the total daily transpiration in Larix and Picea respectively. Very little water was used from the main tree trunk. With increasing transpiration and use of stored water from wood in the crown, the water potential in the foliage decreases. Plant water status recovers with the decrease of transpiration and the refilling of the water storage sites. The liquid flow conductance in the trunk was 0.45 x 10-9 and 0.36 x 10-9 mol m-2s-1 Pa-1 in Larix and Picea respectively. The role of stomata and their control by environmental and internal plant factors is discussed.

Keywords

Plant Water Status Canopy Transpiration Crown Position Daily Transpiration Cuvette Measurement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. -D. Schulze
    • 1
  • J. Čermák
    • 2
  • M. Matyssek
    • 1
  • M. Penka
    • 2
  • R. Zimmermann
    • 1
  • F. Vasícek
    • 2
  • W. Gries
    • 1
  • J. Kučera
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl Pflanzenökologie der Universität BayreuthBayreuthFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Institute of Forest EcologyBrno University of AgricultureBrno-SoběšiceČSSR

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