During the 20th century the Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) showed an expansion of its distribution to the west in Europe. We present data for a small fish pond system in northern Bavaria indicating that the Tufted Duck is not fully integrated in the already established communities. The possible mechanism producing this effect seems to be “diffuse competition” by a set of species, which forms a densely packed guild.
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Brandl, R., Schmidtke, K. Invasion by the tufted duck Aythya fuligula into a pond area: implications of diffuse competition. Oecologia 59, 397–401 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00378868
- 20th Century
- Small Fish
- Fish Pond
- Pond Area