Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 50, Issue 1, pp 98–102 | Cite as

The cold resistance of Macaronesian Sempervivoideae

  • R. Lösch
  • L. Kappen
Article

Summary

Cold resistance of twenty-seven species of Macaronesian Sempervivoideae uniformly cultivated under cool moderate but not hardening conditions was measured. The resistance limits of all the tested species ranged between-4 and-10°C. Cold stress response was principially different: Cold resistance of about half of the tested species was due to freezing point lowering. This response type, avoidance of freezing, in which any ice formation in the leaves leads to injury, was found in the most cold resistant species (Aeonium spathulatum, several Aichryson species). The other species developed tolerance to freezing, thus resembling the behaviour of the hardy Eurasian Sempervivum species. Several Aeonium and Monanthes species resist to reasonable lower temperatures than normally occur in their natural habitats. The species-specific differences in resisting cold stress may originate from different abilities to tolerate cellular freeze dehydration. The Sempervivum alliance illustrates well the two evolutionary strategies of cold tolerance: Avoidance mechanisms, like lowering the osmotic potential, are typical for species colonizing higher altitudes with moderate frosts. For species extending their distribution area into higher latitudes with more severe frosts, however, freezing tolerance is necessary.

Keywords

Dehydration Cold Stress Distribution Area Cold Tolerance Freezing Point 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Berger A (1930) Crassulaceae. In: A Engler, K Prantl (eds), Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Bd 18a: Z. Aufl. Leipzig, pp. 352–386, 420–436Google Scholar
  2. Bramwell D, Bramwell Z (1974) Wild flowers of the Canary Islands. London and BurfordGoogle Scholar
  3. Heber U, Santarius KA (1976) Water stress during freezing. In: OL Lange, L Kappen, ED Schulze (eds), Water and Plant Life. Ecological Studies 19:253–267. Berlin-Heidelberg-New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Kappen L (1969) Frostresistenz einheimischer Halophyten in Beziehung zu ihrem Salz- Zucker- und Wassergehalt im Sommer und Winter. Flora Abt B 158:232–260Google Scholar
  5. Kappen L (1979) Widerstandsfähigkeit von Halophyten gegenüber Gefrieren und Salzstreß und ihre möglichen biochemischen Ursachen. Ber deutsch bot Ges 92:55–71Google Scholar
  6. Kessler W (1935) Über die inneren Ursachen der Kälteresistenz der Pflanzen. Planta 24:312–352Google Scholar
  7. Larcher W (1970) Kalteresistenz und Überwinterungsvermögen mediterraner Holzpflanzen. Oecol Plant 5:267–286Google Scholar
  8. Larcher W (1980) Ökologie der Pflanzen. 3. Aufl, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  9. Lems K (1960) Botanical notes on the Canary Islands II. The evolution of plant forms in the islands: Aeonium, Ecology 41:1–17Google Scholar
  10. Levitt J (1972) Responses of plants to environmental stress. New York-LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Lötschert W (1977) Zur Ökologie, pflanzengeographischen Stellung und Entstehung der Kanaren-Flora, Beitr Biol Pfl 53:429–446Google Scholar
  12. Maier R (1971) Einfluß von Photoperiode und Einstrahlungsstärke auf die Temperaturresistenz einiger Samenpflanzen. Österr Bot Z 119:306–322Google Scholar
  13. Nobel PS (1981) Influence of freezing temperatures on a cactus, Coryphantha vivipara. Oecologia (Berl) 48:194–198Google Scholar
  14. Praeger RL (1928) The Canarian Sempervivum-flora: its distribution and origin. J Bot 66:218–229Google Scholar
  15. Praeger RL (1929) Semperviva of the Canary islands area. Proceed Roy Irish Acad, Sect B 38:454–499Google Scholar
  16. Praeger RL (1967) An account of the Sempervivum group. The Roy Horticult Soc London 1932 (Reprint: Lehre)Google Scholar
  17. Thompson FB, Leyton L (1971) Method for measuring the leaf surface area of complex shoots. Nature 229:572Google Scholar
  18. Voggenreiter V (1974) Geobotanische Untersuchungen an der natürlichen Vegetation der Kanareninsel Tenerife, Dissertat Bot 26: LehreGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Lösch
    • 1
  • L. Kappen
    • 1
  1. 1.Botanisches Institut der Universität KielKielFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations