, Volume 79, Issue 4, pp 431–438 | Cite as

Plurimodal emergence and plurivoltinism of Central European populations of Nemurella pictetii (Plecoptera: Nemouridae)

  • Beate Wolf
  • Peter Zwick
Original Papers


Nemurella pictetii Klapálek, 1900 (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) has bi-or trimodal emergence patterns in Central Europe. The emergence threshold temperature is about 8°C. Egg development is direct. The slopes of regressions describing its temperature dependence do not differ significantly between English, Norwegian and German populations, but the intercepts (i.e., the incubation period at 0°C) do. Regular sampling of a benthic population near Schlitz, in Hesse, West Germany, showed that part of the offspring of the first emergence group grew quickly and produced a second emergence peak. The remaining offspring of the first generation grew more slowly and overwintered, together with the offspring of the second emergence peak. This population exhibits partial bivoltinism. The potential for bivoltinism was also shown in laboratory rearings of a German population at a constant 14°C: many eggs yielded normal adults after about 120 days. Larval growth rates were up to 2.2% body length day-1, much higher than for English Nemurella (unimodal emergence), or any other stonefly. The thermal sum (degree-days above 0°C) accumulated between the two emergence peaks, at the German sites studied, resembled cumulated degree-days in a laboratory culture. For an Austrian population with trimodal emergence, degree-days accumulated in the field were lower, suggesting a lower temperature demand and partial trivoltinism. This is the only case of confirmed plurivoltinism in Plecoptera. Nemurella pictetii seems to have lost seasonal life cycle cues, enabling the opportunistic use of favourable local conditions. Population synchrony appears to be regulated by the thermal demand for development and the emergence threshold temperature.

Key words

Plecoptera Bivoltinism Growth-rate Emergence-threshold Thermal demand 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beate Wolf
    • 1
  • Peter Zwick
    • 1
  1. 1.Limnologische Flußstation Schlitz des Max-Planck-Instituts für LimnologieSchlitzFederal Republic of Germany

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