Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Simultaneous exposure to airborne flour particles and thermal load as cause of respiratory impairment

  • 25 Accesses

Summary

In order to estimate whether only simultaneous exposure to both airborne flour particles and unfavorable thermal environment alone cause the development of nonspecific respiratory disease or whether sole exposure to flour aerosols is likely to cause impairment of the respiratory system, a group of 80 millers and 130 bakers, all nonsmokers, were examined. Both millers and bakers were exposed to approximately the same concentration of airborne flour particles but the latter worked under considerable thermal load. It was found that between millers and bakers the difference in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms was not statistically significant. Although the differences between the mean measured and the mean predicted ventilatory function parameters (FVC, FEV1, PEF, MEF 50%, MEF 75%) were significant both in millers and bakers, they did not differ significantly between these two groups. This finding suggests that exposure to flour dust may cause the development of chronic nonspecific respiratory disease and a reduction of ventilatory lung capacity irrespective of simultaneous heat load.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Baagoe, K.H.: Mehlidiosynkrasie. Klin.Wschr. 1, 792 (1933)

  2. 2.

    Bedford, T.: Environmental warmth and its measurement. Medical Research Council War Memo, No.17. London: HMSO 1946

  3. 3.

    Belding, H.S., Hatch, T.F.: Index for evaluating heat stress in terms of resulting physiological strains. Heat.Pip.Air Condit. 27, 129 (1955)

  4. 4.

    Beritić, D., Valić, F.: On the relationship between hypersensitivity to flour and chronic bronchitis in bakers [in Croatian]. Lij.vjes. 93, 991 (1971)

  5. 5.

    Beritić, D., Valić, F., Zagar, Z.: Role of bacterial and fungal flora in the development of chronic bronchitis in bakers [in Croatian]-Acta med.jugosl. 26, 19 (1972)

  6. 6.

    Castberg, T., Sorensen, C.M.: Allergic examinations of bakers and millers. Acta Allerg. 1, 283 (1948)

  7. 7.

    CECA: Tables de références pour les examines spirographiques, Luxembourg (1967)

  8. 8.

    Cenacchi, G.C., Rosa, L., Bergami, G.: Indagine sulle allergopathie dei fornai. Folia med. 42, 345 (1959)

  9. 9.

    Cherniack, R., Raber, M.B.: Normal standards for ventilatory function using an automated wedge spirometer. Amer.Rev.resp.Dis. 106, 38 (1972)

  10. 10.

    Colmes, A., Guild, T.B., Rackemann, F.M.: Studies in sensitization; influence of occupation on sensitization in man as determined in study of 32 bakers. J.Allergy 6, 358 (1935)

  11. 11.

    Danilović, V., Karajović, D., Ljaljević, M., Popović, D., Spužić, I.: Examen de l'allergie chez les boulangers et les meuniers. Acta med. jugosl. 13, 294 (1959)

  12. 12.

    Diedrich, W., Lübbers, P.: Das Mehlasthma als Berufskrankheit. Z.Arbeitsmed.Arbeitsschutz 5, 189 (1955)

  13. 13.

    Dishoek, V., Roux, D.J. Sensitization to flour and respiratory illnesses among flour workers. J.Hyg.(Lond.) 34, 674 (1934)

  14. 14.

    Epstein, U.: Cited in: P. Bonevie, occupational allergy. Leiden: Stenfert 1958

  15. 15.

    Gadborg, S.: Allergy to flour. Doctoral Thesis, Copenhagen (1956). Cited in: P. Bonnevie, occupational allergy. Leiden: Stenfert 1958

  16. 16.

    Granati, A., Capone, C.: Studio sulle condizioni ambientali e sulla patologia professionale nei laboratori artigani della fabbricazione del pane. Folia med. 42, 948 (1959)

  17. 17.

    Health factors involved in working under conditions of heat stress. Techn.Rep.Ser., No.412. Geneva: W.H.O. 1969

  18. 18.

    Hertig, B.A.: Thermal standards and measurement techniques. In: The industrial environment evaluation and control, p.413. Washington N.I.O.S.H. 1973

  19. 19.

    Herxheimer, H.: Die Entwicklung von Mehlempfindlichkeit der Haut bei Backerlehrlingen und Bäckern. Klin.Wschr. 45, 481 (1967)

  20. 20.

    Hlavacek, H.A.E.: Allergic symptoms on the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract of bakers and millers. Acta oto-laryng.(Stockh.) 26, 358 (1938)

  21. 21.

    Klunker, W.: Zur Frage der Aetiologie und Pathogenese des sogenannten Bäcker- und Müllerasthmas. Schweiz.med.Wschr. 87, 714 (1957)

  22. 22.

    Linko, E.: Allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma in bakers. Ann.Med. intern.Fenn. 34, 98 (1947)

  23. 23.

    Maver, H., Boras, E.: A contribution to the knowledge of energy expenditures in bakers Lin Croatian]. Proceedings of the Fourth Congress on Preventive Medicine, Sarajevo, Yugoslavia (1961)

  24. 24.

    Medical Research Council Committee on the Aetiology of Chronic Bronchitis: Definition and classification of chronic bronchitis for clinical and epidemiological purposes. Lancet II 1965, 775

  25. 25.

    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health: Criteria for a recommended standard. Occupational exposure to hot environment. HSM - 1972 – 10269, Cincinnati (1972)

  26. 26.

    Odavić, M., Cvetanov, Vl.: Incidence of the allergic manifestations and phenomena of pulmonary spastic syndrome in the workers exposed to flour and floury dust. Allergie u. Asthma 15, 364 (1969)

  27. 27.

    Pestallozzi, C., Schnyder, U.W.: Zur Frage der Backerrhinitis und des Bäckerasthmas. Schweiz.med.Wschr. 85, 496 (1955)

  28. 28.

    Peters, J.M., Mead, J., Van Ganse, W.F.: A simple flow-volume device for measuring ventilatory function in the field. Amer.Rev.resp.Dis. 99, 617 (1969)

  29. 29.

    Ramazzini, B.: Le malattie dei lavoratori (de morbis artificum diatriba). Torino: Minerva medica 1933

  30. 30.

    Ramsey, J.D.: A heat stress standard — How do we face up to it? Presented to American Society of Safety Engineers Professional Development Conference, Pittsburgh, PA. (1974)

  31. 31.

    Regression formula for PEF values expected in normal men: Edinburgh, Airmed Ltd.

  32. 32.

    Salen, E.B., Juhlin-Dannfelt, C.: Über das Vorkommen von sogen. latenter Allergie. Gleichzeitig einige Gesichtspunkte über gewisse prinzipiell bedeutungsvolle Allergieprobleme. Acta med.scand. 86, 505 (1935)

  33. 33.

    Spužić, B., Bojanić, B., Milijić, B., Perišić, S., Ljaljević, J., Nikolić, V.: Allergy in workers employed in steam bakery and mill in Petrovac na Mlavi [in Serbian]. Zavod zdrav.zašt.SRS 1, 21 (1963)

  34. 34.

    Spužić, V., Bojanić, M., Spužić, I.V.: La role de la farine dans l'apparations des manifestations allergiques chez les boulangers et les meuniers en Yougoslavie. Acta allerg.(Kbh.) 23, 69 (1968)

  35. 35.

    Valić, F., Beritić, D.: Chronic bronchitis in bakers [in Croatian]. Lij.vjes. 93, 739 (1971)

  36. 36.

    Valić, F., Tudić, G., Beritić, D., Gjuriś, V.: Pharmacodynamic characteristics if flour particles [in Croatian]. Acta med.jugosl. 26, 29 (1972)

  37. 37.

    Vallerani, G., Bonino, R.: Rilievi sulle allergopathie respiratorie nei fornai. Minerva med. 54, 3069 (1963)

  38. 38.

    Wright, B.M.: A size-selecting sampler for airborne dust. Brit.J.industr. Med. 11, 284 (1954)

  39. 39.

    Yaglou, G.P., Minard, D.: Control of heat casualties at military training centres. Arch.Industr.Hlth 16, 302 (1957)

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Beritić-Stahuuak, D., Valić, F., Cigula, M. et al. Simultaneous exposure to airborne flour particles and thermal load as cause of respiratory impairment. Int. Arch Occup Environ Heath 37, 193–203 (1976). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00378418

Download citation

Key words

  • Flour particles
  • Thermal load
  • Respiratory impairment