Characterization of the proteinuria in cadmium-exposed workers

  • A. Bernard
  • H. Roels
  • G. Hubermont
  • J. P. Buchet
  • P. L. Masson
  • R. R. Lauwerys
Article

Summary

The concentration of several protein (β2-microglobulin, orosomucoid, albumin, transferrin) and of total amino acids was determined in the urine of 18 cadmium-exposed workers and in a group of matched nonexposed workers. The results were compared with the electrophoretic pattern of urinary proteins on agarose gel.

Ten of the cadmium-exposed workers had an abnormal electrophoretic pattern, eight of them excreted larger quantities of high and low molecular weight proteins, and the other two showed only an increased excretion of high molecular weight proteins. An increased β2-microglobulin excretion was found in five workers with a normal urinary protein electrophoresis whereas only the urine of three exposed workers were found to be normal. We have confirmed a previous observation that in the majority of the cadmium-exposed workers with an abnormal electrophoretic pattern or an increased total proteinuria, not only low molecular weight proteins (β2-microglobulin) are excreted in greater amount but also high molecular weight proteins such as albumin and transferrin.

Furthermore, in cadmium-exposed workers proteinuria is more closely related to the concentrations of albumin and orosomucoid in urine than that of β2-microglobulin. The change in urinary concentration of total amino acids was less marked than that of protein. The determination of both low and high molecular weight proteins ought to be recommended for detecting renal damage due to cadmium.

Key words

Cadmium Proteinuria Kidney 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Evrin, P.E., Peterson, P.A., Wide, L., Berggård, I.: Radioimmunoassay of β2-microglobulin im human biological fluids. Scand.J.Clin.Lab.Invest. 28, 439–443 (1971)Google Scholar
  2. Fernandez, F.J.: Micromethod for lead determination in whole blood by atomic absorption with use of the graphite furnace. Clinical Chemistry 21, 558–561 (1975)Google Scholar
  3. Hatch, W.R., Ott, W.L.: Determination of sub-microgram quantities of mercury by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Anal.Chem. 40, 2085–2087 (1968)Google Scholar
  4. Henry, R.J.: Clinical chemistry — Principles and technics. New York: Harper and Row 1965Google Scholar
  5. Lauwerys, R., Delbroeck, R., Vens, M.P.: Automated analysis of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine. Clin.Chim.Acta 40, 443–447 (1972)Google Scholar
  6. Lauwerys, R., Buchet, J.P., Roels, H.: The relationship between cadmium exposure or body burden and the concentration of cadmium in blood and urine in man. Int.Arch.Occup.Environ.Hlth 36, 275–285 (1976)Google Scholar
  7. Lauwerys, R., Buchet, J.P., Roels, H., Brouwers, J., Stanescu, D.: Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to cadmium: effect on lung, kidney and several biological indices. Arch.Environ.Hlth 28, 145–148 (1974)Google Scholar
  8. Materne, D., Lauwerys, R., Buchet, J.P., Roels, H., Brouwers, J., Stanescu, D.: Investigations sur les risques de l'exposition au cadmium dans deux entreprises de production et deux entreprises d'utilisation du cadmium. Cahiers Médecine du Travail 12, 1–76 (1975)Google Scholar
  9. National network for the survey of air pollution by heavy metals sponsored by the Belgian Ministry of Public Health, Brussels (1972–1973)Google Scholar
  10. Piscator, M.: Proteinuria in chronic cadmium poisoning. The applicability of quantitative and qualitative methods of protein determination for the demonstration of cadmium proteinuria. Arch.Environ.Hlth 4, 325–332 (1962)Google Scholar
  11. Ritchie, R.F., Alper, C.A., Graves, J., Pearson, N., Larson, C.: Automated quantitation of proteins in serum and other biological fluids. Amer.J.Clin.Path. 59, 151–159 (1973)Google Scholar
  12. Roels, H., Lauwerys, R., Materne, D., Buchet, J.P.: Study on cadmium proteinuria glomerular dysfunction: an early sign of renal impairment. In: Proceeding International Symposium, Vol.II, Recent Advances in the Assessment of the Health Effects of Environmental Pollution, pp. 631–641, EPA, WHO, Paris, June 1974. Luxembourg: CEC 1976Google Scholar
  13. Skare, I.: Microdetermination of mercury in biological samples. Part III: Automated determination of mercury in urine fish and blood samples. Analyst 97, 148–155 (1972)Google Scholar
  14. Zinterhofer, L.J.M., Jatlow, P.I., Anthony, F.: Atomic absorption determination of lead in blood and urine in the presence of EDTA. J.Lab.Clin.Med. 78, 664–674 (1971)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Bernard
    • 1
  • H. Roels
    • 1
  • G. Hubermont
    • 1
  • J. P. Buchet
    • 1
  • P. L. Masson
    • 2
  • R. R. Lauwerys
    • 1
  1. 1.Unité de Toxicologie Industrielle et Médicale, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of LouvainBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Unit of Experimental MedicineInternational Institute of Cellular and Molecular PathologyBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations