Oecologia

, Volume 79, Issue 1, pp 38–44 | Cite as

Changes in gas exchange characteristics and water use efficiency of mangroves in response to salinity and vapour pressure deficit

  • B. F. Clough
  • R. G. Sim
Original Papers

Summary

Measurements were made of the photosynthetic gas exchange properties and water use efficiency of 19 species of mangrove in 9 estuaries with different salinity and climatic regimes in north eastern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation rates differed significantly between species at the same locality, with the salt-secreting species, Avicennia marina, consistently having the highest CO2 assimilation rates and stomatal conductances. Proportional changes in stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation rate resulted in constant and similar intercellular CO2 concentrations for leaves exposed to photon flux densities above 800 μmol·m-2·s-1 in all species at a particular locality. In consequence, all species at the same locality had similar water use efficiencies. There were, however, significant differences in gas exchange properties between different localities. Stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation rate both decreased with increasing salinity and with increasing leaf to air vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Furthermore, the slope of the relationship between assimilation rate and stomatal conductance increased, while intercellular CO2 concentration decreased, with increasing salinity and with decreasing ambient relative humidity. It is concluded from these results that the water use efficiency of mangroves increases with increasing environmental stress, in this case aridity, thereby maximising photosynthetic carbon fixation while minimising water loss.

Key words

Mangrove Gas exchange Water use efficiency Environmental gradients 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews TJ, Muller GJ (1985) Photosynthetic gas exchange of the mangrove, Rhizophora stylosa Griff., in its natural environment. Oecologia 65:449–455Google Scholar
  2. Andrews TJ, Clough BF, Muller GJ (1984) Photosynthetic gas exchange properties and carbon isotope ratios of some mangroves in North Queensland. In: Teas HJ (ed) Physiology and Management of Mangroves, Tasks for Vegetation Science 9, Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, pp 15–23Google Scholar
  3. Attiwill PM, Clough BF (1980) Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange in the white mangrove. Photosynthetica 14:40–47Google Scholar
  4. Ball MC, Critchley C (1982) Photosynthetic responses to irradiance by the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina, grown in different light regimes. Plant Physiol 74:1101–1106Google Scholar
  5. Ball MC, Farquhar GD (1984a) Photosynthetic and stomatal responses of two mangrove species, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina, to long term salinity and humidity conditions. Plant Physiol 74:1–6Google Scholar
  6. Ball MC, Farquhar GD (1984b) Photosynthetic and stomatal responses of the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina, to transient salinity conditions. Plant Physiol 74:7–11Google Scholar
  7. Bradford KJ, Hsiao TC (1982) Physiological responses to moderate water stress. In: Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H (eds) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology (New Series), Physiological Plant Ecology II Vol 12 B, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 263–324Google Scholar
  8. Burchett MD, Field CD, Pulkownik A (1984) Salinity, growth and root respiration in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina. Physiol Plant 60:113–118Google Scholar
  9. Caemmerer S von, Farquhar GD (1981) Some relationships between the biochemistry of photosynthesis and the gas exchange of leaves. Planta 153:376–387Google Scholar
  10. Clough BF (1984) Growth and salt balance of the mangroves Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. and Rhizophora stylosa Griff. in relation to salinity. Aust J Plant Physiol 11:419–430Google Scholar
  11. Clough BF, Andrews TJ, Cowan JR (1982) Physiological processes in mangroves. In: Clough BF (ed) Mangrove Ecosystems in Australia: Structure, Function and Management, Australian National University Press, Canberra, pp 194–210Google Scholar
  12. Cowan IR (1977) Stomatal behavior and environment. Adv Bot Res 4:117–228Google Scholar
  13. Cowan IR, Farquhar GD (1977) Stomatal function in relation to leaf metabolism and environment. Symp Soc Exp Biol 31:471–505Google Scholar
  14. Downton WJS (1982) Growth and osmotic relations of the mangrove Avicennia marina, as influenced by salinity. Aust J Plant Physiol 9:519–528Google Scholar
  15. Farquhar GD, Sharkey TD (1982) Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 33:317–345Google Scholar
  16. Farquhar GD, O'Leary MH, Berry JA (1982) On the relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration in leaves. Aust J Plant Physiol 9:121–137Google Scholar
  17. Fischer RA, Turner NC (1978) Plant productivity in arid and semiarid zones. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 29:277–317Google Scholar
  18. Golley F, Odum HT, Wilson RF (1962) The structure and function of a Puerto Rican red mangrove forest in May. Ecology 43:9–19Google Scholar
  19. Guy RD, Reid DM (1986) Photosynthesis and the influence of CO2-enrichment on δ13C values in a C3 halophyte. Plant Cell Environ 9:65–72Google Scholar
  20. Hall AE, Schulze E-D (1980) Stomatal response to environment and a possible interrelation between stomatal effects on transpiration and CO2 assimilation. Plant Cell Environ 3:467–474Google Scholar
  21. Larcher W (1975) Physiological Plant Ecology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. McAlpine JR, Keig G, Falls R (1983) Climate of Papua New Guinea. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation in association with the Australian National University Press, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  23. Moore RT, Miller PC, Albright D, Tieszen LL (1972) Comparative gas exchange characteristics of three mangrove species during the winter. Photosynthetica 6:387–393Google Scholar
  24. Moore RT, Miller PC, Ehleringer J, Lawrence W (1973) Seasonal trends in gas exchange characteristics of three mangrove species. Photosynthetica 7:387–394Google Scholar
  25. Schaedle M (1975) Tree photosynthesis. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 26:101–115Google Scholar
  26. Schulze E-D, Hall AE (1982) Stomatal responses, water loss and CO2 assimilation rates of plants in contrasting environments. In: Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H (eds) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology (New Series), Physiological Plant Ecology II Vol 12B, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 182–230Google Scholar
  27. Schulze E-D, Lange OL, Evenari M, Kappen L, Buschbom U (1980) Long-term effects of drought on wild and cultivated plants in the Negev Desert II. Diurnal patterns of net photosynthesis and daily carbon gain. Oecologia 45:19–25Google Scholar
  28. Wong SC, Cowan IR, Farquhar GD (1979) Stomatal conductance correlates with photosynthetic capacity. Nature (London) 282:424–426Google Scholar
  29. Yoshie F (1986) Intercellular CO2 concentration and water-use efficiency of temperate plants with different life-forms and from different microhabitats. Oecologia 68:370–374Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. F. Clough
    • 1
  • R. G. Sim
    • 1
  1. 1.Australian Institute of Marine ScienceTownsville MCAustralia

Personalised recommendations