Instructional Science

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 29–52

Concept maps and Vee diagrams: two metacognitive tools to facilitate meaningful learning

  • Joseph D. Novak

DOI: 10.1007/BF00377984

Cite this article as:
Novak, J.D. Instr Sci (1990) 19: 29. doi:10.1007/BF00377984


This paper describes two metacognitive tools, concept mapping and Vee diagramming, and reports on research utilizing these tools from grades one through university instruction. The psychological and epistemological foundations underlying these tools is presented briefly. The issues of the dominantly rote-mode nature of much school learning and the resistance of studients (and teachers) to move to meaningful learning strategies fostered by concept mapping and Vee diagramming are discussed. The data available to date from a variety of qualitative and quantitative research studies strongly support the value of these metacognitive tools both for cognitive and affective gains.

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph D. Novak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EducationCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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