Instructional Science

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 29–52

Concept maps and Vee diagrams: two metacognitive tools to facilitate meaningful learning

  • Joseph D. Novak
Article

Abstract

This paper describes two metacognitive tools, concept mapping and Vee diagramming, and reports on research utilizing these tools from grades one through university instruction. The psychological and epistemological foundations underlying these tools is presented briefly. The issues of the dominantly rote-mode nature of much school learning and the resistance of studients (and teachers) to move to meaningful learning strategies fostered by concept mapping and Vee diagramming are discussed. The data available to date from a variety of qualitative and quantitative research studies strongly support the value of these metacognitive tools both for cognitive and affective gains.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alvarez, M. C. and Risco, V. J. (1987a). Vee diagrams: helping students understand the structure of knowledge. Washington, DC.: Paper presented at meetings of the American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez, M. C. and Risco, V. J. (1987b). Concept maps and Vee diagrams: a visual representation of children's thinking. Washington, DC.: Paper presented at AERA meeting.Google Scholar
  3. Ault, C. R.Jr. (1985). Concept mapping as a study strategy in earth science. Journal of College Science Teaching, 15 (Sept/Oct), 38–44.Google Scholar
  4. Ault, C. R.Jr., Novak, J. D. and Gowin, D. B. (1984). Constructing Vee maps for clinical interviews on molecule concepts. Science Education, 68(4), 441–462.Google Scholar
  5. Ausubel, D. P. (1963). The psychology of meaningful verbal learning. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  6. Ausubel, D. P. (1968). Educational psychology: a cognitive view. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  7. Ausubel, D. P., Novak, J. D. and Hanesian, H. (1978). Educational psychology: a cognitive view (Second Edition). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  8. Ausubel, D. P., Novak, J. D. and Hanesian, H. (1986). Educational psychology: a cognitive view (Second Edition). New York: Warbel and Peck (reprinted).Google Scholar
  9. Bar-Lavie, B. (1987). Enhancing meaningful learning in an environmental education program: a case study of a class empowered through the use of Novak's and Gowin's principles of leaming how to learn, concept mapping, interviewing and educating. Ithaca, NY.: Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  10. Barenholz, H. and Tamir, P. (1987). The design, implementation and evaluation of a microbiology course with special reference to misconceptions and concept maps. In J. D. Novak (Ed.), Proceedings of the second international seminar on misconceptions and educational strategies in science and mathematics (Vol. I: 32–45). Ithaca, NY.: Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  11. Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B., Goldberger, N. R. and Tarule, J. M. (1986). Woman's ways of knowing/ New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Best, R. (1983). We all got scares. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bogden, C. A. (1977). The use of concept mapping as a possible strategy for instructional design and evaluation in college genetics. Ithaca, NY: Unpublished MS Thesis, Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, H. I. (1978). perception, theory and commitment: the new philosophy of science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  15. Buchweitz, B. (1981). An epistemological analysis of curriculum and an assessment of concept learning in physics laboratory. Ithaca, NY: Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  16. Cardemone, P. F. (1975). Concept mapping: a technique of analyzing a discipline and its use in the curriculum and instruction in a portion of a college level mathematics skills course. Ithaca, NY.: Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Department of Education, Comell University.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, H. H. (1980). Relevance of Gowin's structure of knowledge and Ausubel's learning theory to a method for improving physics laboratory instructions. Ithaca, NY.: Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  18. Cliburn, J. W. (1987). Systematic expository science teaching with concept maps. Cincinnati, OH.: Paper presented at meetings of the National Association of Biology Teachers.Google Scholar
  19. Donaldson, M. (1978). Children's minds. New York: W. W. Norton Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. Edmondson, K. M. (1985). College students' conceptions of their responsibilities for learning. Ithaca, NY.: Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  21. Feldsine, J. E. Jr. (1987). the construction of concept maps facilitates the learning of general college chemistry: a case study. Ithaca, NY.: Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  22. Fisher, K. M. (1986). Elaboration of cognitive knowledge of biology from childhood to adulthood (monograph). San Diego: San Diego State University.Google Scholar
  23. Flavell, J. H. (1985). Cognitive development (Second Edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  24. General Accounting Office (1984). New directions for federal programs to aid mathematics and science teaching. Washington, DC.: General Accounting Office (PEMO 84-85).Google Scholar
  25. Gowin, D. B. (1981). Educating. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. (1966). Physics. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  27. Helm, H. and Novak, J. D. (1983). Proceedings of the international seminar on misconceptions in science and mathematics conference. Ithaca, NY.: Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  28. Hoz, R. (1987). Dimensions of teachers' knowledge structures and their identification by concept mapping. Washington, DC.: Paper presented at the annual meetings of the American Education Research Association.Google Scholar
  29. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental models. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Kelley, G. A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs, Vol. 1 and 2. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  31. Kitchener, R. F. (1986). Piaget's theory of knowledge. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Kuhn, T. S. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. Lehman, J. D., Carter, C. and Kahle, J. B. (1985). Concept mapping, Vee mapping, and achievement: results of a field study with black high school students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 22(7), 663–673.Google Scholar
  34. Levandowski, C. E. (1981). Epistemology of a physics laboratory on electricity and magnetism. Ithaca, NY.: Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  35. Loehr, R. C., Jewell, W. J., Novak, J. D., Clarkson, W. W. and Friedman, C. S. (1979). Land application of wastes, Volumes I and II. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  36. Macnamara, J. (1982). Names for things: a study of human learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  37. Matthews, G. B. (1980). Philosophy and the young child. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Mayer, R. E. (1981). The promise of cognitive psychology. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  39. Mayer, R. E. (1983a). What have we learned about increasing the meaningfulness of science prose? Science Education, 67(2), 223–237.Google Scholar
  40. Mayer, R. E. (1983b), Thinking, problem solving, cognition, New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  41. Moreira, M. (1977). An Ausubelian approach to physics instruction: an experiment in an introductory college course in electromagnetism. Ithaca, NY.: Unpublished Ph.D. Disseratation, Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  42. Novak, J. D. (1977). A theory of education. Ithaca, NY.: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Novak, J. D., Gowin, D. B. and Johansen, G. T. (1983). The use of concept mapping and knowledge Vee mapping with junior high school science students. Science Education, 67(5), 625–645.Google Scholar
  44. Novak, J. D. and Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Novak, J. D. (1987). Human constructivism: toward a unity of psychological and epistemological meaning making. In J. D. Novak (Ed.), Proceedings of the second international seminar on misconceptions and educational strategies in science and mathematics, Vol. 1, 349–360. Ithaca, NY.: Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  46. Novak, J. D. (Ed.) (1987). Proceedings of the second internatinal seminar on misconceptions and educational strategies in science and mathematics. Ithaca, NY.: Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  47. Okebukola, P. A. Students' anxiety toward and perception of difficulty of some biological concepts under the concept mapping heuristic. European Journal of Research in Science Teaching (in press, a).Google Scholar
  48. Okebukola, P. A. Attaining meaningful learning of concepts in genetics and ecology: an examination of the potency of the concept mapping technique. Journal of Research in Science Teaching (in press, b).Google Scholar
  49. Pankratius, W. J. and Keith, T.M. (1987). Building an organized knowledge base: concept mapping in secondary school science. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  50. Piaget, J. (1965). The child's concept of number. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  51. Piaget, J. (1971). Psychology and epistemology. New York: Viking Press.Google Scholar
  52. Piaget, J. (1974). Understanding causality. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  53. Piaget, J. (1976). To understand is to invent. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  54. Pines, A. L., Novak, J. D., Posner, G. J. and VanKirk, J. (1978). The clinical interview: a method for evaluating cognitive structure. Research Report #6, Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  55. Popper, K. (1982). Unened quest: an intellectual autobiography. London: Open Court.Google Scholar
  56. Ridley, D. R. and Novak, J. D. (1983). Sex-related differences in high school science and mathematics enrolments: do they give males a critical headstart toward science-and math-related careers? The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 29(4), 308–318.Google Scholar
  57. Robertson, M. (1984). Use of videotape-stimulated recall interviews to study the thoughts and feedings in an introductory biology laboratory course. Ithaca, NY.: Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  58. Robertson-Taylor, M. (1985). Changing the meaning of experience: empowering learners through the use of concept maps, vee diagrams, and principles of educating in a biology lab course. Ithaca, NY.: Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Education, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  59. Sherris, J. D. and Kahis, J. B. (1984). The effects of instructional organization and locus of control orientation on meaningful learning in high school biology students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 21(1), 83–94.Google Scholar
  60. Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: a triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Symington, D. and Novak, J. D. (1982). Teaching children how to learn. The Educational Magazine, 39(5), 13–16.Google Scholar
  62. Toulmin, S. (1972). Human understanding. Volume 1: The Collective Use and Evolution of Concepts. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press (edited and translated by Eugenia Hanfmann and Gertrude Vakar).Google Scholar
  64. Weinstein, C. E. (1987) Fostering learning autonomy through the use of learning strategies. Journal of Reading 20(7), 590–595, (April).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph D. Novak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EducationCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations