Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Exposure of rabbits to methylchloroform. Vestibular disturbances correlated to blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels

Summary

A previously described experimental model for studying the effects on the central nervous system of rabbits, specifically the vestibular apparatus, has been applied to methylchloroform. To achieve a steady concentration the solvent was infused as a lipid emulsion. The blood and cerebrospinal fluid kinetics have been studied. The arterial blood level seems to be closely correlated to the concentration in the central nervous tissue. Vestibular function has been studied by recording the involuntary eye movements — nystagmus — which are elicited via central vestibulo-oculomotor connections. At blood levels of methylchloroform above 75 ppm a so called “positional nystagmus”, indicated vestibular disturbances, is demonstrated. The relationship between the present findings in rabbits and the reaction and blood concentrations in people exposed to industrial solvents, are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents in the workroom environment with intended changes for 1973

  2. 2.

    Aschan, G.: Different types of alcohol nystagmus. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl 140, 69–78 (1958)

  3. 3.

    Aschan, G.: Studies on the ascending vestibuloocular reflex arc. Wenner-Gren Symposium No. 15, Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press (1970)

  4. 4.

    Aschan, G., Bergstedt, M.: Balanssinnesfunktion vid alkoholintoxikation. Ann. Acad. Regiae Scient, Upsaliensis, 1, 36–52 (1957)

  5. 5.

    Aschan, G., Bergstedt, M.: Positional alcoholic nystagmus (PAN) in man following rapeated alcohol doses. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. 330, 15–29 (1975)

  6. 6.

    Aschan, G., Bergstedt, M., Goldberg, L., Laurell, L.: Positional nystagmus in man during and after alcohol intoxication. Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol 17, 381–405 (1956)

  7. 7.

    Aschan, G., Bergstedt, M., Goldberg, L.: Positional alcohol nystagmus in patients with unilateral and bilateral labyrinthine destructions. Confin. neurol. 24, 80–102 (1964a)

  8. 8.

    Aschan, G., Ekvall, L., Grant, G.: Nystagmus following stimulation in the central vestibular pathways using permanently implanted electrodes. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. 192, 63–77 (1964)

  9. 9.

    Aschan, G., Bunnfors, I., Hydên, D., Larsby, B., Ödkvist, L.M., Tham, R.: Xylene exposure. Electronystagmographic and gaschromatographic studies in rabbits. Acta Otolaryngol. 84, 370–376 (1977)

  10. 10.

    Åstrand, I.: Uptake of solvents in the blood and tissues of man. A review. Scand. j. work environ. & health 1, 199–218 (1975)

  11. 11.

    Åstrand, I., Kilbom, A., Wahlberg, I., Övrum, P.: Methylchloroform exposure. I. Concentration in alveolar air and blood at rest and during exposure. Work-environs health 10, 68–91 (1973)

  12. 12.

    Axelsson, O., Hane, M., Hogstedt, C.: Neuropsychiatric ill-health in workers exposed to solvents — a case control study. Sv. Läkartidningen 73, 322–325 (1976)

  13. 13.

    Brodie, B.: Kinetics of absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of drugs. In Animal and clinical pharmacologic techniques in drug evaluation. Ed. Nodine, J. and Siegler, P. Vol. I, p. 69–88, Year Bk. 1967

  14. 14.

    Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: MSK-Went; 1, 1, 1-Trichloroäthan; Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1973

  15. 15.

    Gamberale, F., Hultengren, M.: Toluene exposure. II. Phychophysiological function. Workenviron.-health 9, 131–139 (1972)

  16. 16.

    Gamberale, G., Hultengren, M. Methylchloroform exposure. I. Psychophysiological functions. Work-environ.-health 10, 82–92 (1973)

  17. 17.

    Goldstein, A., Aranow, L., Kalman, S.: Principles of drug action. The basis of pharmacology. New York, London: John Wiley 1974

  18. 18.

    Japanese Association of Industrial Health: Recommended threshold limit values for 1973. Jap. J. industrial Health (Sangyo Igako) 15, 280–286 (1973)

  19. 19.

    Larsby, B., Ödkvist, L.M., Hydén, D., Liedrgren, S.R.C.: Disturbances of the vestibular system by toxic agents. Acta Phys. Scand. Suppl. 440, (1976)

  20. 20.

    Papper, E.M., Kitz, R.J.: Uptake and distribution of anasthetic agents. New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill Book 1963

  21. 21.

    Report of the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health: Threshold limits in the workroom environment 1974

  22. 22.

    Salvini, M., Binaschi, S., Riva, M.: Evaluation of the psychophysiological functions in humans expsosed to the ‘Threshold Limit Value’ of 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane. Brit. J. industr. Med 28, 286–292 (1971)

  23. 23.

    Seppäläinen, A.M.: Application of neurophysiological methods in occupational medicine. Scand. j. work environ. & health 1, 1–14 (1975)

  24. 24.

    Stewart, R.D., Guy, H.H., Schaffer, A.W., Erley, D.S., Rowe, V.K.: Experimental human exposure to methylchloroform vapor. Arch. environm. hlth 19, 467–472 (1969)

  25. 25.

    Stewart, R.D., Andrews, J.T.: Acute intoxication with methylchloroform. JAMA (March 14) 195, 120–122 (1966)

  26. 26.

    Torkelson, T.R., Qyen, F., McCollister, D.D., Rowe, V.K.: Toxicity of 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane as determined on laboratory animals an human subjects. Amer. industr. hyg. Ass. J. 19, 353–362 (1958)

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Larsby, B., Tham, R., Ödkvist, L.M. et al. Exposure of rabbits to methylchloroform. Vestibular disturbances correlated to blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels. Int. Arch Occup Environ Heath 41, 7–15 (1978). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00377795

Download citation

Key words

  • Gas chromatography
  • Industrial solvents
  • Methylchloroform
  • Vestibular disturbances