Advertisement

Changes in acid-base status of marathon runners during an incremental field test

Relationship to mean competitive marathon velocity
  • J. A. Zoladz
  • A. J. Sargeant
  • J. Emmerich
  • J. Stoklosa
  • A. Zychowski
Article

Summary

Four top-class runners who regularly performed marathon and long-distance races participated in this study. They performed a graded field test on an artificial running track within a few weeks of a competitive marathon. The test consisted of five separate bouts of running. Each period lasted 6 min with an intervening 2-min rest bout during which arterialized capillary blood samples were taken. Blood was analysed for pH, partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide (P02 and PCO2) and lactate concentration ([la]b). The values of base excess (BE) and bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3]) were calculated. The exercise intensity during the test was regulated by the runners themselves. The subjects were asked to perform the first bout of running at a constant heart rate fc which was 50 beats · min−1 below their own maximal fc. Every subsequent bout, each of which lasted 6 min, was performed with an increment of 10 beats · min−1 as the target fc. Thus the last, the fifth run, was planned to be performed with fc amounting to 10 beats · min−1 less than their maximal fc. The results from these runners showed that the blood pH changed very little in the bouts performed at a running speed below 100% of mean marathon velocity (\(\bar v\)m). However, once \(\bar v\)mwas exceeded, there were marked changes in acid-base status. In the bouts performed at a velocity above the \(\bar v\)mthere was a marked increase in [la]b and a significant decrease in pH, [HCO3], BE and PCO2. The average marathon velocity (\(\bar v\)m) was 18.46 (SD 0.32) km·h−1. The [la]b at a mean running velocity of 97.1 (SD 0.8) % of \(\bar v\)mwas 2.33 (SD 1.33) mmol ·l−1 which, compared with a value at rest of 1.50 (SD 0.60) mmol·l−1, was not significantly higher. However, when running velocity exceeded the vm by only 3.6 (SD 1.9) %, the [la]b increased to 6.94 (SD 2.48) mmol·l-1 (P<0.05 vs rest). We concluded from our study that the highest running velocity at which the blood pH still remained constant in relation to the value at rest and the speed of the run at which [la]b began to increase significantly above the value at rest is a sensitive indicator of capacity for marathon running.

Key words

Acid-base balance Graded field test Heart rate Lactate concentration Marathon running 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barker SB, Summerson WH (1941) The calorimetric determination of lactic acid in biological material. J Biol Chem 138:535–554Google Scholar
  2. Bergström J, Hultman E (1967) A study of glycogen metabolism during exercise in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 19:218–228Google Scholar
  3. Boyd AE, Giamber SR, Mager M, Lebovitz HZ (1974) Lactate inhibition of lipolysis in exercising man. Metabolism 23:531–542Google Scholar
  4. Broberg S, Sahlin K (1988) Hyperammoniemia during prolonged exercise: an effect of glycogen depletion? J Appl Physiol 65:2475–2477Google Scholar
  5. Cooke R, Franks K, Luciani GB, Pate E (1988) The inhibition of rabbit skeletal muscle contraction by hydrogen ions and phosphate. J Physiol 395:77–97Google Scholar
  6. Costill DL, Fox EL (1969) Energetics of marathon running. Med Sci Sports 1:81–86Google Scholar
  7. Costill DL, Fink WJ, Pollock ML (1976) Muscle fiber composition and enzyme activities of elite distance runners. Med Sci Sports 8:96–100Google Scholar
  8. Davies CTM (1980) Effects of wind assistance and resistance on the forward motion of a runner. J Appl Physiol 48:702–709Google Scholar
  9. Davies CTM, Thompson MW (1979) Aerobic performance of female marathon and male ultramarathon athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 41: 233–245Google Scholar
  10. de Haan A (1993) Muscle metabolism during fatiguing exercice. In: Sargeant AJ, Kernell D (eds) Neuromuscular fatigue. Academy Series, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 16–23Google Scholar
  11. Farrell PA, Wilmore JH, Coyle EF, Billing JE, Costill DL (1979) Plasma lactate accumulation and distance running performance. Med Sci Sports 11:338–344Google Scholar
  12. Föhrenbach R, Mader A, Hollmann W (1987) Determination of endurance capacity and prediction of exercise intensities for training and competition in marathon runners. Int J Sports Med 8:11–18Google Scholar
  13. Fredholm BB (1971) Fat mobilization and blood lactate concentration. In: Pernow B, Saltin B (eds) Muscle metabolism during exercise, vol. 11. Plenum Press, New York, pp 249–255Google Scholar
  14. Heck H, Mader A, Hess G, Mucke S, Muller R, Hollmann W (1985) Justification of the 4-mmol/l lactate threshold. Int J Sports Med 6:117–130Google Scholar
  15. Hill AV (1927) The air resistance to runner. Proc R Soc Lond (B) 102:380–385Google Scholar
  16. Issekutz B, Miller HI (1962) Plasma free fatty acids during exercise and the effect of lactic acid. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 110:237–239Google Scholar
  17. Mutch BJ, Banister EW (1983) Ammonia metabolism in exercise and fatigue: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 15:41–50Google Scholar
  18. Newsholme EA (1988) Application of knowledge of metabolic integration to the problem of metbalic limitation in sprints, middle distance and marathon running. In: Poortmans JR (ed) Principles of excercise biochemistry. Med Sport Sci Karger (Basel) vol 27: 194–211Google Scholar
  19. Newsholme EA, Leech AR (1992) Biochemistry for the medical sciences. Wiley, Chichester, pp 528–529Google Scholar
  20. Norman B, Sollevi A, Jansson E (1988) Increased IMP content in glycogen-depleted muscle fibers during submaximal exercise in man. Acta Physiol Scand 133:97–100Google Scholar
  21. Pugh LGCE (1971) The influence of wind resistance in running and walking and the mechanical efficiency of work against horizontal or vertical forces. J Physiol (London) 213:225–276Google Scholar
  22. Rhodes EC, McKenzie DC (1984) Predicting marathon time from anaerobic threshold measurements. Physician Sportsmed 12:95–98Google Scholar
  23. Sahlin K (1986) Muscle fatigue and lactic acid accumulation. Acta Physiol Scand [Suppl 556] 128:83–91Google Scholar
  24. Saltin B, Karlsson J (1971) Muscle glycogen utilization during work of different intensities. In: Pernow B, Saltin B (eds) Muscle metabolism during exercise, vol. 11. Plenum Press, New York, pp 249–255Google Scholar
  25. Sjödin B, Jacobs J (1981) Onset of blood lactate accumulation and marathon running performance. Int J Sports Med 2:23–26Google Scholar
  26. Ström G (1949) The influence of anoxia on lactate utilization in man after prolonged muscular work. Acta Physiol Scand 17:440–451Google Scholar
  27. Tanaka K, Matsuura Y (1984) Marathon performance, anaerobic threshold, and onset of blood lactate accumulation. J Appl Physiol 57:640–643Google Scholar
  28. Wasserman K, Beaver W, Whipp B (1986) Mechanisms and patterns of blood lactate increase during exercise in man. Med Sci Spots Exerc 18:344–52Google Scholar
  29. Westra HG, Haan A de, Doorn JE van, Haan EJ de (1986) IMP production and energy metabolism during exercise in rats in relation to age. Biochem J 239:751–755Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Zoladz
    • 2
  • A. J. Sargeant
    • 2
  • J. Emmerich
    • 1
  • J. Stoklosa
    • 1
  • A. Zychowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and BiochemistryAcademy of Physical EducationCracowPoland
  2. 2.Department of Muscle and Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Human Movement SciencesVrije UniversiteitAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations