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Stages in the P-T path of ascending basalt magma: An example from San Quintin, Baja California


Late Pleistocene or Recent lavas from San Quintin, Baja California are basanitoids and alkali basalts. The surface quench temperatures of the lavas average 1 005° C with log \(f_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \)=−11.4, as deduced from the groundmass Fe-Ti oxides. Spinel lherzolite xenoliths and megacrysts of augite and andesine have been found in lava flows and cinder deposits. Using analytical data on the rocks and minerals and simple thermodynamic expressions, the pressures and temperatures of equilibration of lavas and xenoliths, megacrysts and phenocrysts have been calculated. The lavas could have been in equilibrium with lherzolite at 1 330–1 410° C and 27.5–31.6 kb, the more silica-poor liquid having the higher values. The basanitoid could have equilibrated with the megacrysts at about 10.5 kb and with phenocrysts at about 1.4 kb and 1130° C. The variation in composition of the lavas may be explained by a rising zone of melting within the mantle, the most silica-poor liquid having the deepest source. The source of the San Quintin basalts is probably related to spreading of the ocean floor in the Gulf of California.

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Bacon, C.R., Carmichael, I.S.E. Stages in the P-T path of ascending basalt magma: An example from San Quintin, Baja California. Contr. Mineral. and Petrol. 41, 1–22 (1973). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00377648

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  • Oxide
  • Analytical Data
  • Mineral Resource
  • Pleistocene
  • Lava Flow