Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 273–281 | Cite as

Residency, migration and a compromise: Adaptations to nest-site scarcity and food specialization in three fennoscandian owl species

  • Arne Lundberg
Article

Summary

Fennoscandian owl species differ, among other things, with respect to nest-site, food, clutch size, mate and territory fidelity, sexual size dimorphism and longevity. All these life characteristics help shaping the pattern of mobility and wintering strategies found in owl species, but it seems justifiable to regard food abundance and nest-site availability as the most prominent ones.

The Ural owl is a generalist feeder and nests in tree cavities which are scarce. The pair is faithful to their territory for life. The long-eared owl is a vole specialist, breeds in secondhand twig-nests, which are abundantly available, and is largely migratory. Tengmalm's owl is a vole specialist and breeds in tree holes. As an adaptation to the conflicting pressures of periodical food scarcity and of keen competition for the nest holes which therefore have better be guarded uninterruptedly this species has evolved a strategy of partial migration, adult males being resident and females and young being migratory.

Keywords

Clutch Size Food Abundance Sexual Size Dimorphism Tree Hole Food Scarcity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Gerell, R.: The food of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) in Scania (in Swedish with English summary). Vår Fågelv. 27, 193–195 (1968)Google Scholar
  2. Haartman, L., von: The evolution of resident versus migratory habit in birds. Some considerations. Ornis Fenn. 45, 1–7 (1968)Google Scholar
  3. Haartman, L., von: Nest-site and evolution of polygamy in european passerine birds. Ornis Fenn. 46, 1–12 (1969)Google Scholar
  4. Haftorn, S.: Norges fugler. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget 1971Google Scholar
  5. Hagen, Y.: The food, population fluctuations and ecology of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus (L.)) in Norway. Norwegian State Game Res. Inst. Papers, Ser. 2, No. 23 (1965)Google Scholar
  6. Herrera, C.M., Hiraldo, F.: Food-niche and trophic relationships among European owls. Ornis Scand. 7, 29–41 (1976)Google Scholar
  7. Jönsson, I., Schaar, C.: Food of long-eared owls Asio otus in Lund during winter 1969/70 (in Swedish with English summary). Vår Fågelv. 29, 303–304 (1970)Google Scholar
  8. Kondratzki, B., Altmüller, R.: Bigynie beim Rauhfusskauz (Aegolius funereus). Vogelwelt 97, 146–149 (1976)Google Scholar
  9. Källander, H.: Irruption in 1958 of Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) into Central Sweden and some aspects on the distribution of the species in Sweden (in Swedish with English summary). Vår Fågelv. 23, 119–135 (1964)Google Scholar
  10. Källander, H.: Food of the Tawny Owl Strix aluco and the Long-eared Owl Asio otus — a comparison (in Swedish with English summary). Vår Fågelv. 36, 134–142 (1977a)Google Scholar
  11. Källander, H.: Food of the Long-eared Owl Asio otus in Sweden. Ornis Fenn. 54, 79–84 (1977b)Google Scholar
  12. Lack, D.: The natural regulation of animal numbers. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1954Google Scholar
  13. Lagerström, M.: Age of sexual maturity on Ural Owl (in Finnish with English summary). Ornis Fenn. 46, 31–32 (1969)Google Scholar
  14. Linkola, P., Myllymäki, A.: Der Einfluss der Kleinsäugerfluktuationen auf das Brüten einiger kleinsäugerfressender Vögel im südlichen Häme, Mittelfinnland 1952–1966. Ornis Fenn. 46, 45–78 (1969)Google Scholar
  15. Lundberg, A.: Breeding success and prey availability in a Ural Owl Strix uralensis Pall. population in Central Sweden. Zoon 4, 65–72 (1976)Google Scholar
  16. Lundberg, A.: Census methods for the ural owl Strix uralensis and the tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus (in Swedish with English summary). Anser, supplement 3, 171–175 (1978)Google Scholar
  17. Lundberg, A.: Vocalizations and courtship feeding of the Ural Owl Strix uralensis. Ornis Scand. (in print)Google Scholar
  18. Lundin, A.: The food of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) (in Swedish with English summary). Vår Fågelv. 19, 43–50 (1969)Google Scholar
  19. Lundin, A.: Sång och läten hos pärlugglan, Aegolius funereus (L.) (in Swedish). Fauna Flora 56, 95–128 (1961)Google Scholar
  20. Mysterud, I.: Hypothesis concerning characteristics and causes of population movements in Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius Fundereus (L.)). Nytt Mag. Zool. 18, 49–74 (1970)Google Scholar
  21. März, R.: Zurg, Überwinterung und Brutverhalten der Waldohreule Asio otus. Beitr. Vogelk. 10, 338–348 (1965)Google Scholar
  22. Norberg, Å.: Studies on the ecology and etology of Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) (in Swedish with English summary). Vår Fågelv. 23, 228–244 (1964)Google Scholar
  23. Nord, I.: Fluctuations in Long-eared Owl, Asio otus (in Swedish with English summary). Fåglar i Sörmland 11, 23–29 (1978)Google Scholar
  24. Orians, G.H.: On the evolution of mating systems in birds and mammals. Amer. Natur. 103, 589–603 (1969)Google Scholar
  25. Orians, G.: Ecological aspects of behavior. In: Avian Biology, vol. I (D.S. Farner, J. King, eds), pp. 513–546. New York and London: Academic Press 1971Google Scholar
  26. Österlöf, S.: Report for 1964 of the Bird-Ringing Office (in Swedish with English summary). Swedish Museum of Natural History (1973)Google Scholar
  27. Pleszczynska, W.K.: Microgeographic prediction of polygyny in the lark bunting. Science 201, 935–937 (1978)Google Scholar
  28. Rockenbauch, D.: Siedlungsdichte und Brutergebnis bei Turmfalken (Falco tinnunculus) und Waldohreulen (Asio otus) in den Extremjahren 1965–1967 auf der Schwäbischen Alb. Vogelwelt 89, 168–174 (1968)Google Scholar
  29. Smeenk, C.: Ökologische Vergleiche zwischen Waldkauz Strix aluco und Waldohreule Asio otus. Ardea 60, 1–71 (1972)Google Scholar
  30. Sulkava, P., Sulkava, S.: Die nistzeitliche Nahrung des Rauhfusskauzes Aegolius funereus in Finnland 1958–67. Ornis Fenn. 48, 117–124 (1971)Google Scholar
  31. Svärdson, G.: The “invasion” type of bird migration. Brit. Birds 50, 314–343 (1957)Google Scholar
  32. Uttendörfer, O.: Die Ernährung der deutschen Raubvögel und Eulen. Neudamm: Neumann 1939Google Scholar
  33. Verner, J.: Evolution of polygamy in the Long-billed Marsh Wren. Evolution 18, 252–261 (1964)Google Scholar
  34. Wendland, V.: Aufzeichnungen über Brutbiologie und Verhalten der Waldohreule (Asio otus). J. Orn. 98, 241–261 (1957)Google Scholar
  35. Wittenberger, J.F.: The ecological factors selecting for polygyny in altricial birds. Amer. Natur. 110, 779–799 (1976)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arne Lundberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations