Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 71, Issue 2, pp 221–228 | Cite as

Photoinhibition of the CAM succulent Opuntia basilaris growing in Death Valley: evidence from 77K fluorescence and quantum yield

  • W. W. AdamsIII
  • S. D. Smith
  • C. B. Osmond
Original Papers

Summary

Diurnal measurements of low temperature (77K) fluorescence at 690 nm (PS II) from north, south, east, and west facing cladode surfaces of Opuntia basilaris in Death Valley, California were made on six occasions during 1985. The absolute levels of Fo(instantaneous fluorescence) and Fm(maximum fluorescence), as well as the ratio Fv/Fm(variable fluorescence, Fm-Fo, over maximum fluorescence), were greater in the north face relative to the other faces. Diurnal decreases in Fo, Fmand Fv/Fmwere found concomitant with increases in incident photon flux area density (PFD). Fv/Fmwas fairly low throughout the year, indicative of photoinhibition, but became somewhat elevated after a spring rain. In early fall the quantum yield of the south face was considerably depressed relative to that of the north face, and corresponding differences were observed in Fv/Fm. A decrease in PFD during growth of glasshouse plants led to an increase in chlorophyll concentration, Foand Fm, but not Fv/Fm. Although there was some variability in the quantum yield of well watered glasshouse cladodes, a correlation was found between quantum yield and the light and CO2 saturated rate of photosynthesis. When O. basilaris was water stressed under glasshouse conditions, reductions in quantum yield, Fm, and Fv/Fmwere observed. Reductions in Fv/Fmalways indicated a reduced quantum yield, although the converse was not necessarily so in well watered glasshouse plants. The results of this study indicate that O. basilaris is likely to experience photoinhibition throughout much of its life in Death Valley.

Key words

Photoinhibition Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) 77K fluorescence Quantum yield Stress physiology 

Abbreviations

CAM

crassulacean acid metabolism

MPa

megapascal

PFD

photon flux area density

PS II

photosystem II

ψ

vater potential

Fo

instantaneous fluorescence

Fm

maximum fluoescence

Fo

variable fluorescence

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams WW III, Nishida K, Osmond CB (1986) Quantum yields of CAM plants measured by photosynthetic O2 exchange. Plant Physiol 81:297–300Google Scholar
  2. Adams WW III, Osmond CB, Sharkey TD (1987) Responses of two CAM species to different irradiances during growth and susceptibility to photoinhibition by high light. Plant Physiol (in press)Google Scholar
  3. Barcikowski W, Nobel PS (1984) Water relations of cacti during desiccation: distribution of water in tissues. Bot Gaz 143:110–115Google Scholar
  4. Björkman O, Demmig B (1986) Photon yield of O2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence at 77K among vascular plants of diverse origins. Planta (in press)Google Scholar
  5. Björkman O, Powles SB (1984) Inhibition of photosynthetic reactions under water stress: interaction with light level. Planta 161:490–504Google Scholar
  6. Delieu T, Walker DA (1981) Polarographic measurement of oxygen evolution by leaf discs. New Phytol 89:165–175Google Scholar
  7. Delieu T, Walker DA (1983) Simultaneous measurement of oxygen evolution and chlorophyll fluorescece from leaf pieces. Plant Physiol 73:534–541Google Scholar
  8. Demmig B, Björkman O (1987a) Comparison of the effect of excessive light on chlorophyll fluorescence (77K) and photon yield of O2 evolution in leaves of higher plants. Planta (in press)Google Scholar
  9. Demmig B, Björkman O (1987b) Susceptibility to photoinhibition of photosynthesis in leaves of higher plants as influenced by growth light regime. Planta (in press)Google Scholar
  10. Downton WJS, Berry JA, Seemann JR (1984) Tolerance of photosynthesis to high temperature in desert plants. Plant Physiol 74:786–790Google Scholar
  11. Greer D, Berry JA, Björkman O (1986) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact bean leaves: Role of light and temperature and requirement for chloroplast-protein synthesis during recovery. Planta 168:253–260Google Scholar
  12. Gulmon SL, Bloom AJ (1979) C3 photosynthesis and high temperature acclimation of CAM in Opuntia basilaris Engelm and Bigel. Oecologia (Berlin) 38:217–222Google Scholar
  13. Hanscom Z, Ting IP (1977) Physiological responses to irrigation in Opuntia basilaris Engelm and Bigel. Bot Gaz 138:159–167Google Scholar
  14. Hanscom Z, Ting IP (1978) Irrigation magnifies CAM-photosynthesis in Opuntia basilaris (Cactaceae). Oecologia (Berlin) 33:1–15Google Scholar
  15. Kitajima M, Butler WL (1975) Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and primary photochemistry in chloroplasts by dibromothymoquinone. Biochim Biophys Acta 376:105–115Google Scholar
  16. Ludlow MM, Björkman O (1984) Paraheliotropic leaf movement in Siratro as a protective mechanism against drought-induced damage to primary photosynthetic reactions: damage by excessive light and heat. Planta 161:505–518Google Scholar
  17. Martin CE, Eades CA, Pitner RA (1986) Effects of irradiance on crassulacean acid metabolism in the epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromelieaceae). Plant Physiol 80:23–26Google Scholar
  18. Nobel PS (1980) Interception of photosynthetically active radiation by cacti of different morphology. Oecologia (Berlin) 45:160–166Google Scholar
  19. Nobel PS, Hartsock TL (1983) Relationships between photosynthetically active radiation, nocturnal acid accumulation, and CO2 uptake for a crassulacean acid metabolism plant, Opuntia ficus-indica. Plant Physiol 71:71–75Google Scholar
  20. Osmond CB (1982) Carbon cycling and stability of the photosynthetic apparatus in CAM. In: Ting IP, Gibbs M (eds) Crassulacean acid metabolism. Amer Soc Plant Physiol, Rockville, Maryland, pp 112–127Google Scholar
  21. Osmond CB, Winter K, Powles SB (1980) Adaptive significance of carbon dioxide cycling during photosynthesis in waterstressed plants. In: Turner NC, Kramer PJ (eds). Adaptation of plants to water and high temperature stress. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 139–154Google Scholar
  22. Powles SB (1984) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis induced by visible light. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 35:15–44Google Scholar
  23. Powles SB, Björkman O (1982) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis: effect on chlorophyll fluorescence at 77K in intact leaves and in chloroplast membranes of Nerium oleander. Planta 156:97–107Google Scholar
  24. Powles SB, Critchley C (1980) Effect of light intensity during growth on photoinhibition of intact attached bean leaflets. Plant Physiol 65:1181–1187Google Scholar
  25. Smith SD, Didden-Zopfy B, Nobel PS (1984) High-temperature responses of North American cati. Ecology 65:643–651Google Scholar
  26. Szarek SR, Ting IP (1974) Seasonal patterns of acid metabolism and gas exchange in Opuntia basilaris. Plant Physiol 54:76–81Google Scholar
  27. Szarek SR, Ting IP (1975) Physiological responses to rainfall in Opuntia basilaris (Cactaceae). Amer J Bot 62:602–609Google Scholar
  28. Szarek SR, Johnson HB, Ting IP (1973) Drought adaptation in Opuntia basilaris. Significance of recycling carbon through crassulacean acid metabolism. Plant Physiol 52:539–541Google Scholar
  29. Vernon LP (1960) Spectrophotometric determination of chlorophylls and pheophytins in plant extracts. Anal Chem 32:1144–1150Google Scholar
  30. Went F (1968) The mobile laboratories of the Desert Research Institute. BioScience 18:293–297Google Scholar
  31. Winter K, Osmond CB, Hubick KT (1986) Crassulacean acid metabolism in the shade. Studies on an epiphytic fern, Pyrrosia longifolia, and other rainforest species from Australia. Oecologia (Berlin) 68:224–230Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. W. AdamsIII
    • 1
  • S. D. Smith
    • 1
  • C. B. Osmond
    • 1
  1. 1.Biological Sciences Center, Desert Research InstituteUniversity of Nevada SystemRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations