Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Repeated larval diapause and diapause-free development in geographic strains of the burnet moth Zygaena trifolii Esp. (Insecta, Lepidoptera)

I. Discontinuous clinal variation in photoperiodically controlled diapause induction

  • 45 Accesses

  • 11 Citations

Summary

Zygaena trifolii is a “long-day insect” with temperature-dependent photoperiodic responses. All larval instars are sensitive to photoperiod; however, diapause may occur at the third larval stage or any subsequent larval instars. There were quantitative differences within populations in the threshold photoperiod for diapause induction. The diapause response was polymorphic, so that larvae might enter diapause at different instars under the same culture conditions. Furthermore, decreasing photoperiods below a critical daylength shifted the diapausing instar towards earlier stages. Geographic strains of Z. trifolii showed discontinuous clinal variation. Near the northern edge of the distribution [Cologne (Köln), FRG], there is first an obligatory diapause, mainly during early instars, and additional facultative (“repeat”) diapauses during later larval instars in subsequent years. In the southern part of its distribution, this burnet moth is partially bivoltine in the field with a facultative first developmental arrest and a decreased capacity for repeated diapause (Valencia, Spain; Marseille, France). Further experiments indicated that the photoperiodically controlled diapause reaction is also influenced by the number of photoperiodic cycles experienced during the period spent in each larval instar, which depends on temperature. The adaptive significance of obligatory and facultative repeated diapause, varying even among the offspring of a single female, may be to buffer the populations against the more extreme and, from year to year, unpredictable fluctuations in climatic conditions at the northern edge of the distribution.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

L3 :

feeding 3rd larval instar

L4D:

diapausing 4th larval instar

L5D2:

repeat-diapausing larval instar with second diapause at the 5th larval stage

LD:

light-dark cycle

KT:

shortday conditions (e.g. LD 8:16)

LT:

long-day conditions (e.g. LD 16:8)

References

  1. Barnes HF (1952) Studies in fluctuations in insect populations, XII. Further evidence of prolonged larval life in the wheat blossom midges. Ann Appl Biol 39:370–373

  2. Beck SD (1980) Insect Photoperiodism. Academic Press, New York London Toronto, p 387

  3. Boer PJ den (1968) Spreading of risk and stabilization of animal numbers. Acta Biotheor 18:165–194

  4. Boer PJ den (1970) Stabilization of animal numbers and the heterogeneity of the environment: The problem of the persistence of sparse populations. In: Boer PJ den, Gradwell GR (eds), Dynamics of Populations, Proc Adv Study Inst Dynamics Numbers Popul (Oosterbeek 1970), pp 77–97

  5. Boer PJ den (1973) Das Überleben von Populationnen und Arten und die Bedeutung von Umweltheterogenität. Verth Dtsch Zool Ges 1973:125–135

  6. Burgeff H (1910) Beiträge zur Biologie der Gattung Zygaena F. II. Z Wiss Ins Biol 6:39–44 97–98

  7. Burgeff H (1921) Betträge zur Biologie der Gattung Zygaena F. IV. Mitt Münch Ent Ges 11:50–64

  8. Burgeff H (1965) Kreuzungsanalysen von Georassen der Gattung Zygaena Fab. (Lep.). Nachr Akad Wiss Göttingen, II Math phys K1 14:187–205

  9. Burgeff H (1971) Lebensgeschichte der Zygaena ignifera. Nachr Akad Wiss Göttingen, II Mat phys K1 14:285–291

  10. Danilevskii AS (1965) Photoperiodism and seasonal development of insects. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh London, p 282

  11. Danks HV (1987) Insect Dormancy: An Ecological Perspective. Tyrell Press, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada) p 439

  12. Dorfmeister G (1853) Beobachtungen übereinige Zygaenen: angestellt in den Jahren 1851–1853 von Georg Dorfmeister in Bruck a.d.M. Verh Zool Bot Ver Wien 3:Sitz Ber 178–179

  13. Dorfmeister G (1854) Abhandlungen über einige in der Steiermark vorkommende Zygaenen. Verh Zool Bot Ver Wien 4:473–482

  14. Dorfmeister G (1855) Über einige in der Steiermark vorkommende Zygaenen. Verh Zool Bot Ver Wien 5:87–96

  15. Dryja A (1959) Badania nad Polimorfizmen Krasnica Zmienego (Zygaena ephialtes L.). Warsaw p 403

  16. Falkovich MI (1979) Seasonal development of desert Lepidoptera of Soviet Central Asia and a historical analysis of the Lepidoptera fauna. Ent Rev 58:20–45

  17. Harvey GT (1967) On Coniferophagus species of Choristoneura (Lp., Tortricidae) in North America, V. Second Diapause as a Species Character in North America, V. Second Diapause as a Species Character. Can Entomol 99:486–503

  18. Holik O (1937) Quelques problèmes au sujet du genre Zygaena FABR. III. Hibernation des cheniles. Lambillionea 37:80–91

  19. Holik O (1939) Quelques problèmes au sujet du genre Zygaena FABR. V. La signification biologique du developpment fractioné des chenilles de Zygaena. Lambillionea 39:82–89, 104–111, 123–127

  20. Lounibos LP, Bradshaw WE (1975) A second diapause in Wyeomya smithii: seasonal incidence and maintenance by photoperiod. Can J Zool 53:215–221

  21. Masaki S (1961) Geographic variation of diapause in insects. Bull Fac Agric Hirosaki Univ 7:66–98

  22. Matthes E (1953) Diapause, Bivoltinismus und zweimalige Überwinterung bei Fumea crassiorella (Lep., Psychidae). Mem Est Mus Zool Univ Coimbra 220:1–16

  23. Naumann C (1985) Zur Ökologie und Biologie von Zygaena christa. Nota lepid 8:42–50

  24. Naumann C, Tremewan WG (1980) On the Biology of Zygaena tamara. Entomologist's Gaz 31:113–121

  25. Reddingius J, Boer PJ den (1970) Simulation experiments illustrating stabilization of animal numbers by spreading of risk. Oecologia 5:240–284

  26. Sauer KP, Grüner C, Collatz KG (1986a) Critical points in time and their influence on Life Cycle, Life Span and Aging. In: Collatz KG, Sohal RS (eds), Insect Aging, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 9–22

  27. Sauer KP, Spieth H, Grüner C (1986b) Adaptive Significance of Genetic Variability of Photoperiodism in Mecoptera and Lepidoptera. In: Taylor F, Karban R (eds), The Evolution of Insect Life Cycles, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 153–172

  28. Saunders DS (1979) Insect clocks. Pergamon Press, Oxford New York p 279

  29. Seipel H (1980) Zygaena trifolii ssp. barcelonensis f. loc. saleria BGFF. Nachr Ent Ver Apollo NF 1:2–4

  30. Seipel H (1981) Zygaena trifolii ssp. barcelonensis. f. loc. saleria BGFF., 2. Zuchtbericht. Nachr Ent Ver Apollo NF 2:61–63

  31. Seipel H (1982) Zygaena trifolii ssp. barcelonensis f. loc. saleria BGFF., 3. Zuchtbericht. Nachr Ent Ver Apollo NF 3:57–58

  32. Stearns SC (1976) Life history tactics: a review of the ideas. Quart Rev Biol 51:3–47

  33. Tauber MJ, Tauber CA, Masaki S (1986) Seasonal Adaptations of Insects. Oxford University Press, New York p 411

  34. Taylor F, Spalding JB (1986) Geographical Patterns in the Photoperiodic Induction of Hibernal Diapause. In: Taylor F, Karban R (eds) The Evolution of Insect Life Cycles, Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg pp 66–86

  35. Topp W (1984) Synchronisation und polymorphe Termination der Diapause bei Oxytelus rugosus (Col., Staphylinidae). Zool Jahrb Syst 111:521–542

  36. Tremewan WG (1977) On the biology of Zygaena cuvieri (Lep., Zygaenidae). Entomol Gaz 28:17–19

  37. Uebel W (1974) Zygaenenzuchten. Mitt Entomol Ver Stuttgart 9:43–61

  38. Uebel W (1983) Ex-ovo-Zuchten zweier nordafrikanischer Zygaenenarten. Atalanta 14:313–320

  39. Varley GC, Gradwell GR, Hassel MP (1980) Populationsökologie der Insekten. Thieme, Stuttgart New York, p 211

  40. Viebahn M (1987) Respiration, Lipid-und Glykogengehalt bei Diapause-und Nondiapause-Larven von Zygaena trifolii ESP. Unpublished Diplom Thesis, Universität zu Köln, p 109

  41. Wiegel KH (1972) Zwei neue Zygaenenrassen aus Apulien. Mitt Münch Ent Ges 60:57–79

  42. Wiegel KH (1973) Zweiter Beitrag zur Zygaenenfauna des Litoralgebietes von Apulien. Atalanta 4:224–240

  43. Wipking W (1985) Ökologische Untersuchungen über die Habitatbindung der Zygaenidae. Mitt Münch Ent Ges 74 (1984):37–59

  44. Wipking W (1987) Ökologische Untersuchungen über die Diapauseregulation bei westpaläarktischen Stämmen einer Schmetterlinsfamilie (Ins., Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae). Unpublished Ph D Thesis, Universität zu Köln, p 152

  45. Wipking W, Neumann D (1986) Polymorphism in the Larval Hibernation Strategy of the Burnet Moth, Zygaena trifolii— In: Taylor F, Karban R (eds) The Evolution of Insect Life Cycles, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 125–134

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wipking, W. Repeated larval diapause and diapause-free development in geographic strains of the burnet moth Zygaena trifolii Esp. (Insecta, Lepidoptera). Oecologia 77, 557–564 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00377274

Download citation

Key words

  • Obligatory diapause
  • Facultative diapause
  • Repeated larval diapause
  • Inter-and intrapopulational variation
  • Spreading of risk