Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 78, Issue 2, pp 214–219 | Cite as

Facilitative interactions between two lepidopteran herbivores of Asimina

  • Hans Damman
Original Papers

Summary

Insect herbivores that require young foliage for successful larval development are often restricted to a single generation during a year by the scarcity of suitable food over most of the growing season. The major specialist herbivore attacking shrubs in the genus Asimina in Florida, Eurytides marcellus, requires young foliage for successful larval development. Field manipulations were used to investigate the role of the young foliage produced by Asimina in response to defoliation by the late-season feeder Omphalocera munroei, a second specialist herbivore of Asimina in Florida, in maintaining Eurytides populations during the summer months when young foliage is otherwise scarce. Defoliation by Omphalocera proved to be the major inducer of young growth during the summer because Omphalocera defoliated Asimina shrubs so frequently and severely. When compared to young leaves produced in the absence of damage, the teaves produced by Asimina in response to defoliation were equally as suitable as food for Eurytides larvae and as acceptable as oviposition sites by Eurytides females. The availability of young foliage in an Asimina population was correlated with the size of the associated Eurytides population. The combination of regular, severe defoliation by Omphalocera and lack of a defensive response to damage by Asimina lead to a positive affect of Omphalocera on Eurytides population size, and may be central to other facilitative interactions between herbivores as well.

Key words

Asimina Facilitation Defoliation Herbivory Lepidoptera 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Auerbach M, Simberloff D (1984) Responses of leaf miners to atypical leaf production patterns. Ecol Entomol 9:361–376Google Scholar
  2. Carroll CR, Hoffman CA (1980) Chemical feeding deterrent mobilized in response to insect herbivory and counteradaptation by Epilachna tridecemnotata. Science 209:414–416Google Scholar
  3. Christensen NL (1981) Fire regimes in southeastern ecosystems. In: Mooney HA, Bonnicksen TM, Christensen NL, Lotan JE, Reiners WA (eds) Fire regimes and ecosystem properties. U S Forest Serv Tech Rep WO-26, pp 112–136Google Scholar
  4. Cole LC (1954) The population consequences of life history phenomena. Quart Rev Biol 29:103–137Google Scholar
  5. Coley PD (1983) Herbivory and defensive characteristics of tree species in a lowland tropical forest. Ecol Monogr 53:209–233Google Scholar
  6. Crawley MJ, Nachapong M (1984) Facultative defenses and specialist herbivores? Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) on the regrowth foliage of ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). Ecol Entomol 9:389–393Google Scholar
  7. Damman H (1986a) The osmaterial glands of the swallowtail butterfly Eurytides marcellus as a defence against natural enemies. Ecol Entomol 11:261–265Google Scholar
  8. Damman H (1986b) Effects of seasonal changes in leaf quality and abundance of natural enemies on the insect herbivores of pawpaws. Ph D Thesis, Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar
  9. Dixon AFG (1970) Quality and availability of food for a sycamore aphid population. In: Watson A (ed) Animal populations in relation to their food resources. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 271–282Google Scholar
  10. Faeth SH (1986) Indirect interactions between temporally separated herbivores mediated by the host plant. Ecology 67:479–494Google Scholar
  11. Faeth SH, Mopper S, Simberloff D (1981) Abundances and diversity of leaf-mining insects on three oak host species: effects of host-plant phenology and nitrogen content of leaves. Oikos 37:238–251Google Scholar
  12. Feeny P (1970) Seasonal changes in oak leaf tannins and nutrients as a cause of spring feeding by winter moth caterpillars. Ecology 51:565–581Google Scholar
  13. Fowler SV, Lawton JH (1985) Rapidly induced defenses and talking trees: the devil's advocate position. Am Nat 126:181–195Google Scholar
  14. Futuyma DJ, Wasserman SS (1980) Resource concentration and herbivory in oak forests. Science 201:920–922Google Scholar
  15. Hairston NG, Smith FE, Slobodkin LB (1960) Community structure, population control, and competition. Am Nat 94:421–425Google Scholar
  16. Harrison S, Karban R (1986) Effects of an early-season folivorous moth on the success of a late-season species, mediated by a change in the quality of the shared host, Lupinus arboreus Sims. Oecologia 69:354–359Google Scholar
  17. Haukioja E, Niemelä P (1979) Birch leaves as a resource for herbivores: seasonal occurrence of increased resistance in foliage after mechanical damage of adjacent leaves. Oecologia 39:151–159Google Scholar
  18. Heichel GH, Turner NC (1976) Phenology and leaf growth of defoliated hardwood trees. In: Anderson JF, Kaya HK (eds) Perspectives in forest entomology. Academic Press, New York, pp 31–40Google Scholar
  19. Heinrich B (1979) Foraging strategies of caterpillars. Oecologia 42:325–337Google Scholar
  20. Hodson AC (1981) The response of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to artificial defoliation. Great Lakes Entomol 14:167–169Google Scholar
  21. Hough JA, Pimentel D (1978) Influences of host foliage on development, survival, and fecundity of the gypsy moth. Environ Entomol 7:97–102Google Scholar
  22. Jones EW (1959) Biological flora of the British Isles: Quercus L. J Ecol 47:169–222Google Scholar
  23. Kalisz PJ, Stone EL (1984) The longleaf pine islands of the Ocala National Forest, Florida: a soil study. Ecology 65:1743–1754Google Scholar
  24. Kral R (1960) A revision of Asimina and Deeringothamnus (Annonaceae). Brittonia 12:233–278Google Scholar
  25. Lawton JH, Strong DR (1981) Community patterns and competition in folivorous insects. Am Nat 118:317–338Google Scholar
  26. Lowman MD (1982a) Effects of different rates and methods of leaf area removal on rain forest seedlings of coachwood (Ceratopetalum apetalum). Austral J Bot 30:477–483Google Scholar
  27. Lowman MD (1982b) Seasonal variation in insect abundance among three Australian rain forests, with particular reference to phytophagous types. Austral J Ecol 7:353–361Google Scholar
  28. Macauley BJ, Fox LR (1980) Variation in total phenols and condensed tannins in Eucalyptus: leaf phenology and insect grazing. Austral J Zool 5:31–35Google Scholar
  29. Nagy M (1979) The effect of Lepidoptera larvae consumption on the leaf production of Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. Acta Bot Acad Sci Hungaricae 27:141–150Google Scholar
  30. Niemelä P, Haukioja E (1982) Seasonal patterns in species richness of herbivores: macrolepidoptera larvae on Finnish deciduous trees. Ecol Entomol 7:169–175Google Scholar
  31. Opler PA (1974) Biology, ecology, and host specificity of Microlepidoptera associated with Quercus agrifolia (Fagaceae). Univ Calif Publ Entomol 75:1–83Google Scholar
  32. Rathcke B (1983) Competition and facilitation among plants for pollination. In: Real L (ed) Pollination biology. Academic Press, New York, pp 305–329Google Scholar
  33. Rausher MD (1981) Host plant selection by Battus philenor butterflies: the roles of predation, nutrition, and plant chemistry. Ecol Monogr 51:1–20Google Scholar
  34. Reichle DE, Goldstein RA, Van Hook RI, Dodson GJ (1973) Analysis of food consumption in a forest canopy. Ecology 54:1076–1084Google Scholar
  35. Rhoades DF (1985) Offensive-defensive interactions between herbivores and plants: their relevance in herbivore population dynamics and ecological theory. Am Nat 125:205–238Google Scholar
  36. Rockwood LL (1974) Seasonal changes in the susceptibility of Crescentia alata leaves to the flea beetle, Oedionychus sp. Ecology 55:142–148Google Scholar
  37. Schoener TW (1983) Field experiments on interspecific competition. Am Nat 122:240–285Google Scholar
  38. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1981) Biometry. WH Freeman & Company, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  39. South R (1961) The Moths of the British Isles. Frederick Warne & Co, LtdGoogle Scholar
  40. Springett BP (1978) On the ecological role of insects in Australian eucalypt forests. Austral J Ecol 3:129–139Google Scholar
  41. Stearns SC (1976) Life history tactics: a review of the ideas. Quart Rev Biol 51:3–47Google Scholar
  42. Washburn JO, Cornell HV (1981) Parasitoids, patches, and phenology: their possible role in the local extinction of a cynipid gall wasp population. Ecology 62:1597–1607Google Scholar
  43. Watanabe M (1981) Population dynamics of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus L., in a deforested area. Res Popul Ecol 23:74–93Google Scholar
  44. Watanabe M (1982) Leaf structure of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb et Zucc. (Rutales: Rutaceae) affecting the mortality of a swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Appl Ent Zool 17:151–159Google Scholar
  45. Webber HJ (1935) The Florida scrub, a fire-fighting association. Am J Bot 22:344–361Google Scholar
  46. West C (1985) Factors underlying the late seasonal appearance of the lepidopteran leaf-mining guild on oak. Ecol Entomol 10:111–120Google Scholar
  47. Williams KS, Myers JH (1984) Previous herbivore attack of red alder may improve food quality for fall webworm larvae. Oecologia 63:166–170Google Scholar
  48. Wolda H (1978) Seasonal fluctuations in rainfall, food and abundance for tropical insects. J Anim Ecol 47:369–381Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Damman
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Ecology and SystematicsCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations